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mumbling on,

mumbling over,

muttering,

murmuring,

self-indulgence (loluppam),1

self-indulging,

intemperateness,

agitation (pu ñcikatā),2

longing for the agreeable (s à dhu kamyatā),3 incestuous passion (a dham marago),*

lawless lust (visa malobho),

appetite (nik anti),

hungering for (nikā manā),

entreating (patthanā),

envying (pihanā),

imploring (sa mpatthanā),5

thirst for sensual indulgence (kāmataņhā),

thirst for existence (bha vatan hā),

thirst for non-existence (vibha vatanha),
thirst for form,7

thirst for formlessness,

thirst for annihilation,

thirst for visible forms,8

after abhijappana. Cf. C. iv. 14, 26: sakanṇajappakam.

See Jat. i. 340; iv. 306. Buddhaghosa derives this from lumpati. Cf. Whitney's 'Roots,' etc., where it appears as the Intensive of lup, but belonging in meaning to lubh.

2 The excitement or fluster produced by tanha is here, according to the Cy., likened to that shown by 'dogs wagging their tails' (read sunakha) when seeking to find something. Ibid.

3 The Cy. and K. read sadhu.

4 For a mother, a mother's sister, etc. Asl. 366.

5 I.e., patthana intensified. Ibid.

6 I.e., for a state of annihilation. Ibid.

7 I.e., for a state of pure (suddhe) form. Ibid.

8 Before thirst for sounds' K. inserts rūpatanha for

thirst for sounds,
thirst for smells,

thirst for tastes,

thirst for the tangible,

thirst for mental states (dhammatanha),

a flood (ogho),

a yoke (yogo),

trammels (gantho),

attachment (u pādānam),

obstruction (avaraṇam),

hindrance (nivaraṇam),
counterfeiting (chadanam),1
bondage (bandhanam),2
depravity (u pakkileso),
faltering (a nusa yo),3

pervading (pariyuṭṭhanam),1
a creeper (1a tā),5

avarice (ve viccham),"

root of pain,

source of pain (dukkhanidānam),

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the second time, the rūpāni craved for here being presumably sights,' 'perceptions of sight,' as distinguished from that supersensuous plane of being craved for under the former rupatanhã, and ranking next to the formless plane. The Cy., on the other hand, only notices between thirst for annihilation' and thirst for sounds,' the word ditthirago, passion for speculation.

6

i So Asl. and K. Cf. Sutta Nip. i. 5, 7.

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2 I.e., on the wheel' (of samsara). Ibid.

3Through loss of strength.' Ibid.

I.e., the heart becomes possessed by lust, as a road by highwaymen. Ibid.

5...

.. lata ubbhijjā tiṭṭhati. Dhp. 340. Quoted in the Cy. Greed or lust strangles its victim, as a creeper strangles a tree.

6 See Sutta Nip. 1033. Buddhaghosa, however, paraphrases the term as multifarious wants,' Vielhaberei; 'vividhāni vatthuni icchati.' Ibid. At Asl., p. 375, he has a different explanation. Cf. S. N. ii., s.v. veviccha.

production of pain (dukkhappabhavo),
Māra's trap (mārapāso),

Mara's fish-hook (māra balisam),
Mara's domain (māravisayo),

thirst,

thirst for delight (nanditan ha),

the fishing-net of thirst (jālamtaṇhā),1
the leash of thirst (gaddülataṇhā),2
the ocean (samuddo),"

covetousness (abhijjha),*

the lust that is the root of evil

this is what is called lust.

[1060] What is hate?

When annoyance springs up at the thought: he has done me harm, is doing, will do me harm; he has done harm, is doing harm, will do harm to someone dear and precious to me; he has conferred a benefit, is conferring, will confer a benefit on someone I dislike and object to; or when annoyance springs up groundlessly:-all such vexation of spirit, resentment, repugnance, hostility; ill-temper, irritation,

1 Spread out like a net over the river. Asl. 367.

2 Cf. Jat. ii. 246; iii. 204. Tanha drags its victims about as dogs are drawn by a leash (Asl. 367).

3 The thirst of lust is hard to satiate. Ibid. Cf. above, p. 175, note 4.

+ See § 391.

5Atthane và pana aghato ti akarane kopo. E.g., when one is vexed because it rains too much, or because it doesn't rain, or because the sun is too hot, or not hot enough, or because there is too much or too little wind, or because one cannot sweep away the Bo-tree-leaves, or because the wind prevents one from putting on one's robe, or because one has fallen over a tree stump.' Asl. 367.

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Cittassa aghato. Aghato is rendered above by annoyance. The two next terms are paṭighato and patigham. The latter is the word used to express action and reaction in sense-activity. § 597 et seq.

7 Pativirodho. Cf. Mil. 203, 402.

3

indignation; hate, antipathy, abhorrence;2 mental disorder, detestation; anger, fuming, irascibility; hate, hating, hatred; disorder, getting upset, derangement ; opposition, hostility; churlishness, abruptness, disgust of heart-this is what is called hate.

[1061] What is dulness?

Lack of knowledge about Ill, lack of knowledge about the uprising of Ill, lack of knowledge about the cessation of Ill, lack of knowledge about the way leading to the cessation of Ill; lack of knowledge about the former things, about the latter things and about both taken together; lack of knowledge about the assignable causation of causally determined states-even all that kind of lack of knowledge which is lack of insight, of understanding, of wakefulness, of enlightenment, of penetration, of comprehension, of sounding, of comparing, of contemplation, of perspicacity; impurity, childishness, unintelligence, the dulness that is stupidity, obtuseness, ignorance, a flood of ignorance, the yoke of ignorance, the dependence of ignorance, the being possessed by ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, the dulness that is the root of evil-this is called dulness."

These are the three causes of bad [karma].

(C) In this connexion,

[1062] Which are the three causes of the indeterminate?

The absence of lust, hate and dulness coming to pass as

1 Kopo, pakopo, sampakopo.

2 Padoso, sampadoso.

3 Cittassa vyapatti; paraphrased as a bouleversement, or cataclysm of mind. Vyapatti is used for the wrecking of a ship in Jät. iv. 107. Cf. above, § 418.

Manopadoso. Cf. Jat. iv. 29; M. i. 377, where it means apparently curse or execration-the original sense of 'detesting.'

5 See § 418.

6

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According to Asl. 368, this is thoroughly set out in the Commentary on the Vibhanga,'

the result of good states, or as the indeterminate states known as kiriy a-thoughts.1

[1063] Which are the nine causes operative in the sensuous universe (kāmavacarahetū)?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of bad [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]these are the nine.

[1064] Which are the six causes operative in the universe of form?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]-these are the six.

[1065] Which are the six causes operative in the universe of the formless?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]-these are the six.

[1066] Which are the six causes operative in the Unincluded?

The three causes of good [karma], the three causes of indeterminate [states]-these are the six.

In this connexion,

[1067] Which are the three causes of good [karma]? The absence of lust, hate and dulness.

In this connexion,

[1068-1070] What is the absence of lust . . . of hate of dulness?

Answers as in §§ 1055-1057, but omitting in § 1056, from 'hatred' to the absence of malice,' exclusively.2

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These are the three causes of good [karma].

(D) In this connexion,

1 Kiriyāvyākatesu dhammesu. See above, § 566 et seq. The Cy. here is silent.

2 Adoso has been inadvertently omitted in the text.

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