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(B) The three causes of bad (karma).

(C) The three causes of the indeterminate.

The nine causes operative in the sensuous universe.

The six causes operative in the universe of form.

The six causes operative in the universe of the formless.

(D) The six causes operative in the life that is the Unincluded.

(A) In this connexion,

[1054] Which are the three causes of good karma ? The absence of lust, hate and dulness.

In this connexion,

[1055] What is the absence of lust?

The absence of lust, lusting, lustfulness is the absence of infatuation, of raving, of passionateness; the absence of covetousness, that absence of lust which is the root of good (karma).1

[1056] What is the absence of hate?

The absence of hate, hating, hatred; love, loving, loving disposition; tender care, forbearance, considerateness;1

to Aristotle's final cause (rò oû éveka). (d) As the essence of the elements of earth and water (solid and liquid) are the condition of sweet or not-sweet, so is ignorance the common base-element of the syntheses (sanskaras). In our present connexion the term is said to be used in its first-named meaning.

1 Cf. § 32. The Pali terms coincide in both answers. In the following answer, the terms differ considerably from those in § 33.

2 The printed text has mettam; the Cy. and K. read metti.

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3 The mental condition of one who is possessed by love, and through love is loosed from clinging.' (Asl. 362.). Cf. note on p. 66.

Anuddă, anuddayana, anuddayitattam. The Cy. paraphrases by rakkhati, showing the reference there is in these terms, usually rendered by pity,' 'compassion,' to the protective, shielding aspect of altruism and benevolence. Cf. its use in C. vii. 3, 13; S. ii., p. 218, where it

seeking the general good,1 compassion; the absence of malice, of malignity; that absence of hate which is the root of good (karma).2

[1057] What is the absence of dulness?

Knowledge about ill, about the uprising of ill, about the cessation of ill, and about the way leading to the cessation of ill; knowledge about the former things, about the latter things, about both taken together; knowledge about the assignable causation of causally determined states—even that kind of wisdom which is understanding, search, research, searching the Truth, etc. [continue as in § 34]. These are the three causes of good (karma).

(B) In this connexion,

[1058] Which are the three causes of bad (karma)? Lust, hate, dulness.

In this connexion,

[1059] What is lust?

That which is

passion (rago),

infatuation (sarago),3

fawning (anunayo),*

compliance (anurodho),5

is used to express that attitude of forbearance in the interests of the weaker brethren recommended by St. Paul to Roman and Corinthian adherents.

1 Hitesitä. See C. ix. 5, 7.

2 By all these words (i.e., from 'love' to 'compassion '), concludes Buddhaghosa, the advance (upacara) and conception (appana) of love is described. Possibly the procedure in the induction of Jhana was in his mind in using these technical terms. Cf. Rhys Davids, Yogavacara's Manual,' p. xi.

34

Meaning strong rago.' Asl. 362.

4 This is opposed to paṭigho or repugnance in Mil. 44; ef. 122 and 322. The comment (Asl. 362)-visa yesu sattanam anunayanato-may indicate that the fawning is by way of pandering to the sensual appetites of others.

5 This is opposed to virodho, pativirodho. See

delighting in (nandi),1

taking passionate delight in (na ndi-rāgo),1
infatuation of mind (cittassa sarago),2
longing (iccha),
languishing (mucchā),

devouring (ajjhosānam),3

greed (ged ho),

omnivorous greed (paligedho),

cleaving to (sango),

a slough (panko),1

seduction (ejā),5

trickery (māyā),

genitrix (ja nikā),7

§ 1060. The Cy. (ibid.) paraphrases by kameti. Cf. S. i. 111; K. V. 485.

Explained as the recurrence over and over again of that thirst for some object, the single occurrence of which constitutes the state called nandi. Asl. 363.

2 Explained as qualifying the infatuation' already named by emphasizing the reference to a mental state or psychosis, and not to any personal entity. Ibid.

3 I.e., grasping by swallowing, by putting a complete end to.' Asl. 363, 370. The term is probably formed from sa, to bind (or to gain), and usually, by its context, signifies attachment. Cf. M. i. 109, 498; Mil. 74. Judging by the Commentary, however, there seems to be a homonym derived from the root aç, to eat, similar to the parallel evolution of jhayati, from √dhya and √ kṣā. Cf. Rhys Davids, 'Dialogues of the Buddha,' i. 33, note 2. The passage in A. i. 66, 67, is the only one at present known to me where the word, occurring as it does in coordination with terms of attachment and also of greed, may be rendered equally well in either sense.

4 Paraphrased by osidanam. Asl. 363.

5 Paraphrased by akaḍdhanam, used in the Dhp. Cy. (p. 412) to illustrate the magnetic power of the love of treasure and of family. Ibid.

6 Paraphrased by vañcanam. Ibid.

7 Because lust causes beings to be reborn on the Wheel (of life). So for the following epithet. As it is written: Tanha janeti purisam, cittam assa vidhāvati.

progenitrix (s a ñjanani),
seamstress (sibbani),1

she who ensnares (jālinī),2

the river (saritā),3

she who is poisonous (visattikā),*
the thread (suttam),5

diffusion (viṣatā), 6

she who toils (ayuhani),7
the consort (dutiyā),8
hankering (pa niḍhi),

1 The Cy. explains that lobho sews, or joins beings to sorrow by way of rebirth, just as a tailor joins one piece of cloth to another.

Ibid.

2 She=tanha, by the suffusion of which the manifold web of the senses becomes as a net.

Yassa jālinī visattikā

Ibid.

tanhã n'atthi kuhiñci netave.

=

S. i. 107; Dhp., ver. 180.

3 From the swift current of lobho, or else from its glutinous tenacity, according to the Commentator, who quotes:

Saritani sine hitani ca

somanassani bhavanti jantuno.

4 See above note 2.

Dhp., ver. 341.

5 By reason of its chaining together destruction and misfortune as jars are arranged on a cord. Asl. 364.

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6 In the sense of spreading out over sensuous objects.' Ibid.

7I.e., she causes beings to toil after (ayu hapeti) this or that state.' Ibid. On ayuhati, see J. P. T. S., 1885, pp. 58, 59; 1886, pp. 155, 156; Mil. 108, 214.

8 Lobho (or tanha) is likened to a dear alter ego, or wife, or travelling companion. The idea is found in Sutta Nipāta, verse 740, quoted by the Cy.:

Tanhadutiyo puriso digham addhanam sam

saram

Itthabhavaññathābhavam samsaram nātivat

tati ti.

she who leads to renewed existence (bhava

netti),1

the jungle (vanam),

the undergrowth (vanatho),2

intimacy (santhavo),3

unctuous affection (sine ho),

affection (a pekkhā),1

connexion (paṭibandhu),5

craving (ā sā),

wanting (a sim sanā),

cupidity (a simsitattam),

craving for visual forms (rūpāsā, etc.),

craving for sounds,

craving for odours,

craving for tastes,

craving for the tangible,

craving for getting,

craving for wealth,

craving for children,

craving for life,

mumbling (jappā),

1 Cy. Bhavanetti = the cord of existence. For by it beings are led, as cows by a cord bound about their necks, wherever they are wanted.

2 The impenetrable, impassable nature of tropical forest growth often serves to illustrate the dangers of lobho or tanhã. Cf. Dh., p. 283, quoted in the Cy. Ibid.

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Intimacy is of two kinds: it is either carnal (i.e., of tanha) or friendly. Here the former is meant.' Asl. 365. 4'Alayakaranavasena apekkhati ti apekkha. Ibid. The quotation in the Cy. on this word is from the Mahāsudassana Sutta, 229, with which cf. S. iii. 144.

5 As being constantly near to living beings there is no relative (or connexion) like tanha.' Asl. 365.

The four following terms are all variants of jappā. 'Whenever anything is given to a greedy person, he will mutter, "This is mine, this is mine! This has been given me by so-and-so!" Asl. 365. K. repeats jappā

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