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of Bengal, April 1838, pl. xii. fig. 12) evidently belongs to the same king, though Prinsep read the father's name as Rudra Dóma. The only other rayed coin that I have discovered is in Professor Wilson's Ariana Antiqua, and the legend there is quite illegible. There are then but two other rayed coins with which a comparison can be made, and they are both from the mint of K. Rudra Sáh, son of M. K. Rudra Sinha, for I infer confidently that the name is Sinha, though the upper portion of the letter which alone can determine this point is not visible on either coin. The rounded letters strikingly resemble those of Rudra Sinha's coin now described. The star, the two large well-curved half-moons, and the ampler space about the centre of the reverse (consequent on the absence of downward elongation and curved tails in the letters) are the same on these coins and on no others. There are also on the coins of both these kings, immediately behind the helmet, two small dots, which I have found on none besides except those of K. Rudra Sáh, son of Jíva Dáma, M. K. Vijaya Sáh and M. K. Dáma Jata Shri. It is not likely that several of these corresponding marks, and more especially the rayed star, should be found only on the coins of two kings separated from each other by Satraps who varied the emblem and style. The reasonable inference is that the two coins referred to are those of a son of M. K. Rudra Sinha, whose father (M. K. Rudra Dáma) re-built the Girnar bridge. The date, however, of the Girnar inscription cannot as yet be thus approximatively arrived at, for neither Mr. Prinsep's nor Mr. Thomas's figure gives a legible date on the coins of K. Rudra Sáh ; and though Mr. Thomas gives another figure (18), with the same legend and a date, it is evidently altogether a different coin. A considerable step, nevertheless, has

, been gained since the previously suggested identification is now shown to have been incorrect. An earlier date * than that of any of the Sáh kings whose coins have yet been discovered may now, with every probability, be inferred as that at which the bridge was re-built and the inscription made, and we may now hope to ascertain that date (in the era used by the Sáh dynasty), not merely on the improbable contingency of the discovery of other specimens of the unique coin here described, but on the more probable chance of meeting with other coins of Rudra Sinha's son.

* Col. Sykes has, I see, been led into an error (Journal R. A. S. of Great Britain, vol. vi. p. 477) as to the date of the Sáh inscription at Girnar, by having erroneously adopted the identification proposed by Prinsep. He says “ Rudra Dáma, mentioned in the inscription, is the father of the Rudra Sáh of the coius with the Samyat 385,"_Author,

Art. III.-On the Sanscrit Puet, Kálidása. By Bua'o

DA'JI', Esq.

Read 11th October 1860.

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Ka'lida'sa is justly regarded as the greatest of Indian poets and dramatists. His works have been translated not only into some of the vernacular languages of India, but within the last seventy-one years into English, German, French, Danish, and Italian. They are read in the original Sanskrit with greater critical acumen, and in the translations delight a larger number of readers in Europe than in the birth-land of the poet.

Native poets, commentators, and critics are lavish in their praises of Kálidása; and it is not a little to his honor that the orientalists Jones, Wilson, Lassen, Chezy, Williams and Fauche, but also that the poet, eritic, and natural philosopher, -Goëthe, Schlegel, and Humboldt respectively, have assigned him a very high position amongst the glorious company of the “Sons of Song."

The four well-known lines of Goëthe in praise of S’akuntalá* may here be repeated :

« Would'st thou the young year's blossom and the fruits of its decline,

And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed ?
Would'st thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine ?

I name thee, 0 Sákoontalá ! and all at once is said.” Alexander Von Humboldt says :- Kálidása, the celebrated author of the S'akoontala, is a masterly describer of the influence which nature exercises upon the minds of lovers. This great poet flourished at the splendid court of Vikramaditya, and was therefore contemporary with Virgil and Horace. Tenderness in the expression of feeling and richness of creative fancy have assigned to him his lofty place among the poets of all nations."

Professor Lassen, in his “ Indische Alterthumskunde,” that wonderful and unrivalled monument of literary and antiquarian research, observes :-“ Kálidása may be considered as the brightest star in the firmament of Indian artificial poetry. He deserves praise, on account of

* S’ stands for " Sh."

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the mastery with which he wielded the language, and the fine sentiment with which he imparts to it a simpler or more artificial form according to the subjects of which he treats without falling into the later hairsplitting and overstepping of the boundaries of good taste ; on account of the multifariousness of his creations, his ingenious invention and happy choice of subjects; on account of the complete fulfilment of his poetical intentions; and on account of the beauty of his representations, the tenderness of his feeling, and the richness of his imagination. This praise is mostly deserved by his two Dramas, the S'akuntala and the Vikrama Urvas'i. In the composition of these pieces he had only listened to the inspirations of his highly-gifted and conscious spirit, and he shows himself entirely independent of the influence of the school from which Bhavabhútí, who lived about A. D. 710, could not withdraw himself.”*

About seventy-five years ago, Sir William Jones introduced Kálidása to the notice of the European literary public, by his elegant translation of the drama S’akuntalá. Professor H. H. Wilson gave a charming translation of the Vikrama Urvas’i, the “Hero and Nymph,” the twinplay of S'akuntalá, in his well-known and esteemed work, the “Hindu Theatre,” in 1837. The Sanskrit text, with a Latin translation, &c., was published at Berlin by R. Lenz, in 1833. Hirzel published a German translation also in 1833 ; F. Bollensen at Petersburg in 1846, The Sanskrit text, edited by M. Williams, was published at Hertford in 1848, and a prose translation by E. B. Cowell in 1857. The Sanskrit text of the Megha Data, or “ Cloud-Messenger," with an admirable metrical translation into English, interspersed with many learned notes, was also published in 1832, by the late Professor H. H. Wilson, who combined with profound knowledge of every branch of Sanskrit literature, poetical talent of no ordinary character. This episode has also been edited by Professor Johnson in England, by Mr. J. Gildermeister with the Sringára Tilaka at Bonn in 1841, and by Dr. Max Muller at Konigsberg. An edition, with Mallinátha's Commentary, has been published at Benares, and the text forms a part of Hæberlin's Sanskrit Anthology, which also contains Kálidásá's S’ritabodha and Ritu Sanhára. The Ritu Sanhára has been edited and translated by Bohlen, at Leipzic, in 1840; and the Sritabodha by M. E. Lancereau, at Paris, in 1855.

The “Raghuvans'a," a heroic poem, was translated into Latin by Adolphus Fredericus Stenzler, and published in Paris' in 1832. A translation into modern Greek was published by Mr. Typaldo, at Athens, in 1849. A metrical translation of the first book, by the Rev. J. M. Mitchell, appears in our Journal for 1843, and an analysis of the whole work by the Rev. J. Long, in the Journal Beng. A. Society for 1852. A. F. Stenzler published in 1838, in Sanskrit and Latin, the first seven Cantos of the Kumára Sambhava, or « Birth of the WarGod,” which has also been rendered into English verse by Mr. Ralph T. H. Griffith, and published under the patronage of the “Oriental Translation Committee” in London, 1853. Of this beautiful poem, Mr. Griffith observes that, “ The Birth of the War-God was either left unfinished by its author or time has robbed us of the conclusion. The latter is the more probable supposition, tradition informing us that the poem originally consisted of twenty-two cantos.” In our search throughout Gujarat and the Deccan for ancient manuscripts, we have been fortunate enough to get three venerable copies of the entire poem, and a fourth one of the 8th, 10th, and 11th chapters, and we intend to take an early opportunity of publishing the complete work in Sanskrit, with another poem of Kálidása in Magadhí, (the Setu Kávya), which has never been brought to the notice of the learned world.

* Lassen's Alterthumskunde, Band. ii. p. 1158.

The S'akuntala, considered the gem of oriental literature, has been excellently translated into English prose by Professor Monier Williams, and published in a superb form in 1853 by Mr. Stephen Austiu, who, “with an almost lavish liberality, has done everything to make the vehicle worthy of its contents.”

Another edition (1853) with the Devanagari recension, literal English translation, and critical and explanatory notes, is still more valuable to the student of Sanskrit.

In 1842, Otto Böhtlingk edited the Devanagarí recension of this play at Bonn. A German version of Sir William Jones's English translation was published by Forster in 1791 ; and versions of the

; English have appeared in Danish and Italian. This play, which inspired Goëthe with rapture, led Chezy to learn Sanskrit. Chezy put it into French ; Hirzel, Bæhtlingk, Ernst, Meier, and Lobedanz, succeeded one another in rendering it into German prose or verse. Sanskrit editions of the play in Bengali and in Devanagarí characters have been published in Calcutta, the last (Gaudiya recension prepared by Prema Chundra Tarka vàgísha Bhattàchàrya and edited by E. B. Cowell) only a few months ago.

The first volume of a translation of the complete works of Kálidása, by M. Hippolyte Fauche, appeared last year (1859), and besides the second volume, the author promises an Etude" on the life and works of the Indian Bard.

The Poona Sanskrit College published some years ago an indifferent edition of the S'akuntala, a few loose cantos of the Raghurans’a, and a single one of the Kumára Sambhava. The Sanskrit text of the Malavikágnimitra by O. F. Fullbery, and of the Nalodaya by F. Benary, two works attributed to Kálidása, were published at Bonn (1840) and Berlin respectively; also a German translation of the former by A. Weber, at Berlin, in 1856.

What, then, is the personal history of the poet, whose works are regarded as so classical, and command the esteem of the learned of all nations, and whose productions have been the subject of so much critical acumen and learned elucidation ?

Even the most accomplished of his native commentators, who is undoubtedly Mallinátha,* preserves a painful silence as to the personal history of the poet; and the most eminent orientalists have been compelled to admit, with regret, that not only no connected history of the life of Kálidása, and, indeed, of any of the other Sanskrit dramatie poets, can be furnished, but that there is considerable difficulty also in ascertaining the precise time at which the great poet lived.

The title of the Indian Shakspeare has been assigned to Kálidása on the authority of that prince of critics, Sir W. Jones. In the case of both Kálidása and Shakspeare, it may justly be observed that “their lives remain almost a blank, and their very name a subject of contention.”

All that is generally known of Kálidása may be stated in a few words. He lived in Ujjayini or Oujein, and was the noblest of the nine men of genius who graced the court of Vikramaditya. A memorial verse gives the names of these nine “Gems” as follows:

“ Dhanwantari, Ksápanaka, Amara Sinha, S'anku, Vetálabhatta, Ghatakharpara, Kálidása, the renowned Varáha Mihira, and Vararuchi, are the nine


of Vikrama.” Of these the most celebrated are said to have been the physician Dhanwantari; Amara Sinha, the lexicographer; Varáha Mihira, the astronomer ; Vararuchi, the poet and linguist ; and Kálidása, the poe and dramatist,--the brightest of them of all.

The word Vikramaditya signifies “Sun of Valour,” and was assumed by many kings of Ujjayiní and of other kingdoms of India.

The Vikramaditya, at whose court the great Kálidása fiourished, is generally believed to be the king who, after defeating the Sakas or Scythians, established the Samvat Era, which commences fifty-seven years before Christ.

* The age of Mallinátha himself is not clearly established. Mallinátha states that he wrote his Commentary after consulting those of Dakshiņávarnátha and others. He lived some time after the 14th century.

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