Page images
PDF
EPUB

It appears

the lower line was much decayed. It is probable that the inscription was confined to the single stone, which was built in with the brickwork, another (plain) stone having been found thus in situ. From various circumstances it has been conjectured that these small brick dagobs, which are very numerous, contained the ashes of priests deposited probably in the upper part, as nothing but bricks and dust can be found below; and this inscription might settle this point. This stone appears

to have been lost. No. 59.-An inscription of four lines, painted in white, upon one face of the ootagonal column, on the right-hand side of the inner doorway of the chaitya cave (No. 3). This painted inscription is very faint in places, but the date is clearly legible, especially in the afternoon, when the sun shines on the entrance to the cave. that the column had formerly been covered with plaster, which has been laid over the inscription, and has tended towards its preservation. The date may possibly be read “Samvat 1210. Ashwin Sudh 1...." A very similar inscription occurs on the next face of the column, and two others on two faces of the column on the opposite side of the doorway ; but all these are fainter and less legible.

No. 60.-An inscription of two lines, 2 feet 6 inches long, on the outside of the circular wall round the dagob in care No. 13, at Mahákal, and over a grated window. This inscription is faintly cut on a smooth surface, but is distinct, except at the left-hand end, where the letters are somewhat defaced; the characters are as rudely formed as in No. 47. A copy of this inscription occurs in the fifth volume of the Asiatic Researches, but without any intimation of its locality. There has been a very long inscription of small letters, on the inner side wall of the next cave, east of the dagob cave; but only a few letters, here and there, are legible, resembling those in No. 14 inscription.

No. 61.-An inscription on a squared stone, 9 inches x 5 inches x 5 inches, found in a large modern temple with a tiled roof, close to the village of Devíka-párá, less than 5 mile east of the caves of Magathán. It is a loose stone, in good preservation, and lies upon a bench inside the temple, near some modern sculptures, being smeared with red paint on the face. The temple stands on the site of a large ancient temple. The copyist has been misled, in places, by natural markings; but the inscription is clearly Buddhist, and reads, “ye dhamá hetu prabhava hetu teshán tathágato hyavadat teshán cha yo nirodha evam vádí mahá shramana.” As the chief sculpture at Magathán, though very much decayed, has evidently been a sitting figure of Buddha, there can be no doubt that these caves were Buddhist,

No. 62.-A white-painted inscription, scrawled over the back-wall of the verandah of cave No. 27 at Kánheri, between the centre and right-hand doorway; it is very faint, and the letters about a couple of feet in height. No. 27 cave is unfinished, but has been intended to be a very large vihára ; the columns are similar to those of the unfinished chaitya (No. 1); and it is probable that these two caves, on the opposite sides of the hill, were being excavated at the same time,

No. 63.-An inscription on the back of a seat at the eastern end of the columned verandah at Jogeshwari. It appears to read "gahapahika rá-ja,” and the space between the last two letters is probably blank.

No. 64.-An inscription on the rock, to the right of the colossal figure, on the left-hand side of the entrance to the chaitya at Kondana, near the Bhore Ghaut. From the forms of the letters, it would appear to be older than the inscriptions at Kánheri.

Besides the rock-inscriptions at Kánheri there has been discovered a considerable number of seal-impressions in dried clay, differing in size, but nearly all bearing the inscription No. 61; one set of impressions bears a very minute and long inscription, ending with the words found in No. 61, but the first portion requires some clue to enable it to be read. There were also found many impressions of a figure of Buddha, surrounded by ornaments, and with the same inscription as No. 61 below the figure, very difficult to read, owing to imperfeotions in the original seal; these last-mentioned impressions are believed to be counterparts of those in lac, found elsewhere in India. Some copper coins were found near the same place, in stone pots, containing ashes : the coins bear an Arabic inscription, with the date 844.*

* On account of the inaccuracies in Mr. Brett's copies of the Kanheri Inscriptions, the Society has been induced to lithograph those also which have been taken by Mr. West, for besides the advantage of having been copied and reduced by the same hand (to say nothing of the Plan of the Caves « on scale," from original survey, which is added to them), they bear such signs of care and correctness in their delineation as, under the circumstances, to make the publication of the whole highly desirable. Ed.

Art. II.-Note on a Coin connected with the Sáh Inscription at

Girnar. With an Impression. By H. NEWTON, Esq., C.S.

Presented 13th December 1860.

In the Sáh inscription at Girnar in Kathiawar, of which a fac-simile was given in the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for April 1842, and translations have been published by Prinsep and Professor Wilson, the name of "Rájá Mahákshatrapa Rudra Dámá” is given as the re-builder of the bridge over the Palesini, previously repaired by the great Chandragupta.

Among the ten Sáh kings, whose coins had been discovered in Prinsep's time, one had a legend, “Mahákshatrapa Swamí Rudra Sáh, Son of Mahákshatrapa Swámí Rudra Dáma," and this latter person was assumed by Prinsep to be the re-builder of the bridge, the date of the event relatively to the line of the Sáh dynasty being thus ascertained, if the order of the series as given by him were admitted to be the correct one. But this identification was open to the objection that the king named on the coin had “Swámí" among his titles, and we find no instance in which this title was at one time assumed and at another time dropped by the same Satrap. Mr. Thomas, who has added four new kings to Prinsep's list, has, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. xii. p. 23, remarked as under on the defect in the identification which Prinsep proposed :

“For the purposes of chronological arrangement it would be highly desirable to have been able definitively to determine the position Rudra Dámá should occupy among the other members of the Sáh dynasty. This might possibly have been done, but with the necessary reservation in regard to the additional prefix of Swámí, by identifying the Rájá Mahákshatrapa Rudra Dámá of the inscription with the individual of the same title and name who figures on the coins as the father of the last monarch of the present list. There is, however, undoubtedly, a difficulty in the way of the unreserved admission of their identity in the use of the extra title of Swámi on the coins for the insertion of which there was clearly no want of room on the face of the rock whereon the inscription is engraved ; and without such a convincing degree of certainty it would, of course, be useless to raise up any arguments founded on what may eventually provê a mere chance coincidence."

And again in p. 61:

“But as the sovereign by whose command the Girnar bridge inscription was executed is still unidentified with any individual of whom we possess money, any detailed discussion of this subject " (the relative date of the inscription and some of the Sáh coins) “would be comparatively useless, until it is determined whether it is desirable to place the king named in the inscription before, among, or after the series of princes known only from coins."

[ocr errors]

)

The coin (see above), of which I norr send impressions and casts, will set this question at rest. It was sent to me a few months ago by a friend who obtained it in Goozerat, and gives without the slightest variation the name of the re-builder of the bridge as that of the father of the Satrap from whose mint it issued.

The legend is :

“Rájno Mahákshatrapasa Rudra Dámá putrasa rajno Mahákshatrapasa Rudra Sinhasa."

The coin is in excellent préservation, every letter being as distinct as when it left the mint. The execution too evinces a higher degree of art than that exhibited in the coins of any of the other Sáh kings, unless, perhaps, a few of Vijaya Sáhs should be excepted. But from the beautiful coin of Vijaya Sáh it differs in a very marked degree. Its characters (I take the p U and so as examples) have the

) rounded outline of the cave inscriptions, to which they bear a far greater resemblance than those of any other Sáh coin that I have seen. Vijaya Sáh's, on the other hand, are remarkable for the complete transition from the rounded or broad-based rock alphabet to the pointed, lengthened, and laterally compressed character which may be looked on as the natural, though gradually perfected, result of the

[ocr errors]

attempt to adapt a character, up to that time used only for rectilinear inscriptions, to a circular legend of very small radius, where space for the lower portions of the crowded letters was, as compared with that available for the upper portions, necessarily very confined. I should on this ground infer that R. M. K. Rudra Dámá reigned, and his son's coin was struck, at a time when Greek art had but lately essayed the numismatic application of the cave character, while Vijaya Sáh, Dámajata Shri, and the great Rudra Sáh, whose coins may be taken as the perfect types of the angular adaptation, belonged to a later period, although still able to command the services of Bactrian or Greek artificers, or of others little inferior.

The date cannot be discovererl, as the die of the obverse was larger than the coin. The tail, however, is visible of a figure-probably the first-nearly straight, and wanting the bifurcation or loop which distinguishes the lower termination of the numeral representing 300 (or m). If I am right in supposing that the figure spoken of occupied the first place, the second figure was probably 10 or 70.

The legend is markedly oblong—a peculiarity which I have not noticed in any other Sáh coin. The area occupied by it is also larger than that of any other well-executed coin of the dynasty that I have seen, and altogether the coin differs remarkably in appearance from all its congeners, except one to be noticed. As striking a peculiarity as any is, perhaps, that it alone, of all the Sáh coins that I have met with, gives a true delineation of the eye. The upper and lower lid and the eye-ball are here truthfully and artistically depicted. On the best coins of any other Satrap the eye-ball is but a linear curve, and the lines representing the eyelids usually occupy conventional positions.

The Greek legend is bold, and, as far as it falls on the coin, distinct but undecipherable. It differs from all that I can refer to. The latter

I half is as under

MHAAHOH.

There is one peculiarity in the symbol on the reverse which enables me, I think, to connect this coin with another of the series. Mr. Thomas (R. A. S. Journal, vol. xii. p. 50) has remarked that to the right of the central symbol, instead of the seven stars, “at times this stellar assemblage is resolved into a single rayed star or sun." referring to his plates I find this variation in one coin only (pl. i. fig. 19), and that is attributed to K. Rudra Sáh, son of M. K. Rudra Sáh. The single similarly rayed coin delineated by Prinsep (Journal As. Soc.

On

« PreviousContinue »