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tary inonarch, and limited in kind and legree, by his gracious will and plea-sure; and consequently to controul his arbitrary acts by the interposition of good and wholesome laws is a manifest usurpation upon his prerogative. Milton al-lotted to the people a considerable and inportant share in political government, founded upon original ftipulations for. the rights and privileges of free subjects, and called the monarch who should in. fringe or encroach upon these, howeyer qualified by lineal succeffon, a tyrang and an usurper, and freely consigned him to the vengeance of an injured peo. ple. Upon Johnson's plan, there can be no such thing as public liberty. Upon Milton's, where the laws are duly exe..


cuted, and the people protected in the peaceable and legal enjoyment of their lives, properties, and municipal rights and privileges, there can be no such thing as usurpation, in whose hands foever the executive power should be lodged. From this doctrine Milton never swerved; and in that noble apostrophe to Cromwell, in his Second Defense of the people of England, he spares not to remind him, what a wretch and a villain he would be, should he invade those liberties which his valour and magnanimity had restored. If, after this, Milton's . employers deviated from his idea of their duty, be it remembered, that he was. neither in their secrets, nor an inftrum ment in their arbitrary acts or encroach



ments on the legal rights of the subject; many (perhaps the most of which were to be justified by the necessity of the times, and the malignant attempts of those who laboured to restore that wicked:

, race of despotic rulers, the individuals of which had uniformly professed an utter: enmity to the claims of a free people, and had acted accordingly, in perfect conformity to Dr. Johnson's political creed. On another hand, be it observed, that in those State-letters, latinized by Milton, which remain, and in those particularly written in the name of the Protector Oliver, the stricteft attention is paid to the dignity and importance of che British nation, to the protection of trade, and the Protestant religion, by spi

rited expostulations with foreign powers on any infraction of former treaties, in a style of feady determination, of which there have been few examples in subsequent times. A certain sign in what esteem the British government was held; at that period by all the other


of Europe. And as this was the only province in which Milton acted under that government which Dr. Johnson calls an usurpation, let his services be compared with those performed by Dr. Johnson for bis present patrons; and let the constitutional subject of the British empire judge which of them better deserves the appellation of a traitor to public fiberty, or have more righteously earned the honey of a pension.


The real ufurper is the wicked ruler over a poor people, by whatever means the power falls into his hands. And whenever it happens that the imperium ad optimum quemque a minus bono transfertur, the subject is or should be too much interested in the fact to consider any character of the rejected ruler but his vicious arnbition, the violence and injustice of his counsels, and the fiagitious acts by which they were executed.

These petulant reflections of the Doctor on Milton, might, many of them, easily be answered by recrimination ; we have often wondered, in running over this new narrative, that the conscioufness of the historian's heart did not disable his hand for recording several thing,


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