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he writes as if he thought that “ the memory of consciousness constituted identity;" and immediately adds, what leads us to believe that it is his opinion, that “memory of consciousness is a sufficient proof of individuality." Can the memory of consciousness be consciousness itself, and at the same time the evidence of consciousness ? " Consciousness of personal identity presupposes, and therefore cannot constitute, personal identity, any more than knowledge in any other case can constitute truth, which it presupposes."*

Our author candidly acknowledges that his metaphysical speculations respecting the agency of consciousness “ do not come strictly within the province of his work.” We take this admission to be a sufficient reason for our non-notice of such disquisitions, and their collateral branches, as developed in his chapter upon. Suspended Animation." The subject of " Dreams and Spectral Illusions,” (ch. 24,) claims' some brief regard. From the phenomena of dreams, wherein we have vivid perceptions independent of our faculties of perception, Mr. Bakewell argues with Lord Brougham, that "the percipient principle is independent of the organs of sense,” since " it would be impossible otherwise to account for the activity of the perceptive power during the time that the brain ceases to hold any direct communication with the material world.” “No such thing; I deny your conclusion," says Dr. Wallace; " the brain is the organ by which the idea in dreaming becomes an object of the mind's contemplation; the mind does not seem capable of originating any subject of thought sud sponte, or proprio vigore; the sense suggests the idea to the brain, which is the moving power, and the mind is obliged to wait upon the senses for the material on which it works.”+ Mr. Bakewell meets this objection, and shows that it does not militate against his conclusion. We must refer our readers to p. 318 of the volume before us. From the fact, that in all spectral illusions, visible in conjunction with real objects, the mind must possess the power of seeing not only images, which have no tangible existence, but of seeing them also in opposition to the direct impressions of the perceptive organs, our author again establishes the abstract independence of the mind; and thus, at length, arrives at the proposed conclusion of his labours-the existence of the soul after death-the certainty of a future life! The separate arguments, founded on the indestructibility of matter, the properties of matter, and the physiological consideration of the phenomena of life, are of themselves sufficient to establish the point to be proved; yet, when taken together, they mutually confirm each other, and afford new strength to the inferences which they singly warrant. Can we frame a better peroration for this our imperfect review of Mr. Bakewell's interesting volume, than what he himself

• Bishop Butlet's Dissertation on Personal Identity. + Wallace's Observations on Lord Brougham's Nat. Theol. pp. 111, 112, apud notas. affords us in the following recapitulatory summary of his labours in the three divisions of the subject, which he has so judiciously handled :

Had we to rely solely upon the arguments founded on the indestructibility of matter, they might have afforded satisfactory assurance that the sentient principle is also imperishable. The investigation into the subtile properties of matter, and the consideration that they are distinct from, and independent of, the material substances which they control, might have reasonably led to the conclusion that the soul is distinct from, and independent of, the material organization which is subservient to its will. The phenomena of life, againwhich require for their first evolution a pre-existing power, distinct from the properties of matter, competent to dispose the elementary particles in their organic arrangements, and which in their more advanced processes exhibit the mind as distinct froin material substance, and capable of acting independently of the organs of sensation--would alone lead directly to the conclusion that the soul is immaterial and immortal. When these three branches of our subjecteach one of which is, we contend, sufficient to establish a satisfactory belief in a future state of existence-are taken collectively, and when the array of evidence they present is viewed in connexion with the fundamental truths of nátural theology, the testimony thus afforded of a future state of existence is scarcely less conclusive than demonstrative proofs.-Pp. 365, 366.

Finally, we would crave the privilege of remarking, that the “Natural Evidence of a Future Life,” thus derived from the properties and actions of animate and inanimate matter, is by no means a useless chapter in the great volume of natural theology. For, what though our faith and hope rest ultimately upon the written testimony of heaven, not upon the soundness of philosophical speculations, or the force of scientific deductions? It is nevertheless desirable to be taught, and delightful to be assured, that the word and works of God are in perfect harmony with each other; that, whilst the first announces the infallible certainty of another state of existence, the latter speak the same language, and establish the same truth. " The religion of nature, therefore, and the religion of the Bible, are in beautiful accordance; and the indications of the Godhead offered by the one, are well fitted to give us a livelier belief in the promises of the other.".

" It is saying much,"—we borrow the words of Dr. Chalmers," it is saying much for the importance of natural theology, that it contributes to a result so glorious ; nor let us longer speak of nature's light as if it

into utter extinction, when in fact the two great instrumental causes for the Christianity of all our cottages, are the light of nature and the self-evidencing power of the Bible." Let us discard those fond fears and jealous suspicions, with which some pious but injudicious Christians have been harassed, as if the pursuits of natural science were hostile to revealed religion—as if natural theology were the rival, not the handmaid, of Christianity. We invite these timid believers to study Mr. Bakewell's volume : they may there see the philosopher and the Christian united in fraternal amity : they may thence be impressed

* Sedgwick's masterly Discourse, p. 19. VOL. XVIII. NO. vii.

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with the sound conviction that truth is uniform, that Christianity has nothing to fear from the advancement of philosophy, and that “new discoveries will ever lend support and illustration to things which are already known, by giving us a larger insight into the universal harmonies of nature.'

Art. II. - The Patriarchal Religion of Britain ; or a Complete Manual

of Ancient British Druidism, containing a full Development of its True Origin, Primitive Character, Peculiar Tenets, Mode of Instruction, Traditionary Art, Orders, Costume, Privileges, and Influence ; with Specimens of Druidical Compositions in Triads and Triplets, fc. fc. fc. By the Rev. D. JAMES, Curate of Almondbury, in the County of York. London: Whittaker & Co. Huddersfield : J. Brook. 8vo. Pp. 100.

Before we proceed to any remarks on this book we give the Table of Contents, which is as follows :

Introductory Remarks.—The Aborigines of Britain.-Britain, when first colonized.-The Religion of Noah introduced by the elder Branch of Japheth into Britain.—The Religion of Noah preserved in Britain under the name of Druidism.-The Religious Tenets of the British Druids.—The Origin of Bards and Bardism.—The Bardic Science of Oral Tradition.—Discipline of the Bardic Institution. --Orders of the Bardo-Druidic Institution.- Costume of the BardoDruidic Orders.-- Privileges of the Bardo-Druidic Orders.--The Influence of the Druids.-Druidical Forms of Oath.–Druidical Use of the Mistletoe.Druidical Use of Letters.-Druidical Altars and Temples.- Probable Corruption of British Druidism.--Druidism superseded by Christianity.

We cannot withhold the Dedication, which lets us into much of the secret feelings and views of veneration with which the author himself, and his fellow-christians belonging to “ The Ancient Order of Druids in the West Riding of the County of York," regard " The Patriarchal Religion of Britain :" here it is :

To the Ancient Order of Druids in the West-Riding of the County of York.

Gentlemen,-Permit me at length to offer to your notice my long-promised “ Manual of Ancient British Druidism."

The subject is one in which you feel a deep, and, I hope, increasiug interest.

In accordance with the venerable name which you have assumed, you "purpose to keep alive the remembrance of that primitive community-the Ancient Order of Druids, who, by their policy and zealous exertions, became the chief source.," not of power, but of moral improvement and national prosperity," among the Aboriginal Britons," whose descendants many of you really are, though few of you probably know it.

And inoreover, your“ endeavours are directed to the preserving of any valuable information connected with the Antiquity of the Order,-to the cultivation of those social and moral virtues which distinguished the original Institution,

• Sedgwick's Discourse, Appendix, p. 157.

and to the furtherance of such intellectual and charitable purposes, as each United Lodge may establish for the benefit of its members."

With an anxious wish for your success in the prosecution of these noble and patriotic objects, and in the hope of contributing in some measure to their advancement, the following “ History of Primitive Druidism,” compiled and written expressly for your Order, is now most humbly submitted to your perusal and recommended to your fostering care.

I have the bonour to be, Gentlemen,

Your most obedient and faithful servant. Almondbury, April 4th, 1836.

D. JAMES. Here then we must infer, that in the estimation of these gentlemen, Christianity is not sufficient to lead us to the cultivation of all the virtues of which man is capable ; but that those social and moral virtues which distinguished Druidism must be kindled only by "a going back" to the original institution; that the light of the gospel is not sufficiently clear, nor its motives sufficiently powerful, for conducting man to all social and moral virtue, but that at least for these things we need the more powerful and brilliant light of Druidism. If the character and effects of Druidism really are thus highly beneficial to the human race, how great the pity that these Modern Druids do not immediately constitute the reverend author the head of a College of missionaries, to be sent, without loss, through this miserably unenlightened country, and to exalt us all to the discipleship of Druidism!

Now, certainly, we have seen on sundry occasions the signs of low public houses bearing " The Druid's Head," in a style of painting which would have done honour to Jack Tinto ; and we certainly have seen intimations on the said signs, that societies of " Ancient Druids” met at such houses; and we always supposed that such societies did not rank very high in the scale of social existence. We suppose, however, that we were wrong in classing them with the Odd Fellows, and that we must elevate them to the dignity of Freemasons, and gape at them practising the tom-foolery of white aprons, and blue sashes, and unsheathed swords, and stars, and trowels, without actually taking out a writ de lunatico inquirendo. If those who are come to riper years are disposed to act thus, we suppose we must even put up with it; or that the most we can do is to laugh at their expense. When, however, men put Druidism into the place of Christianity, or suppose that it can supply us with motives in which the gospel is deficient, the affair is no longer one of harmless folly; the affair then becomes one of more serious import. Many persons have objected to Temperance Societies, because their promoters seemed to think human example more powerful against intemperance than the express word of God; or the mere signing of a declaration more obligatory than the baptismal covenant. But whatever the defects of Temperance Societies, and the slight they were supposed to put on Christianity, these are little, as compared with the work before us. We could well excuse an anti

quarian searcher into these matters, particularly if officially connected as chaplain or secretary, (which we presume to be the case of the author,) with such a society, in having shown some undue partiality for the institution, and the disciples of it, which were the subjects of his researches ; and we are willing to allow much to Mr. James on this score, and to trace a good deal of his absurdity to this source; but when he seems throughout the work to exalt Druidism almost to a level with the gospel, and actually libels the holy Scriptures to save his favourite religion from the charge of human sacrifice asserting, that if Druidism offered such sacrifices, it was only in the same sense in which the Old Testament authorised them,--we will not trust ourselves with setting down the terms in which such a mode of argument ought to be designated. After giving quotations to show that only criminals were thus sacrified, the author goes on to say :


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This passage reminds us of the conduct of Joshua, calling upon Achan surrender himself to the hands of justice, and confess his crime. « And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto him: and tell me now what hast 'thou done :' hide it not from me. And Acban answered Joshua and said, Indeed I bave siuned agajust the Lord God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done , .. And Joshua said, Why hast thou troubled us? The Lord shall trouble thee this day. And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned him, his sons, and his daughters, fc. with fire, after they had stoned them with stones.” (Josh. chap. vii.)

There is just as much ground for charging Joshua with the immolation of human beings as there is for charging the British Druids. Though residing in countries widely distant from each other, they both lived under the same dis. pensation, and acted precisely on the same principle-a principle universally: recognised in those tinies among all that worshipped the true God.

The custom of sacrificing the innocent was never known in primitive Britain. Let any one read the laws of the ancient Britons, as compiled and enforced by Dyvnwal Moelmud, 400 years before Christ, and he will see that those laws prevented the possibility of so horrid a practice. What kind of sacrifices prevailed among the Coritani, Belgians, Scots, and Picts, who settled along the eastern coasts and in the north, we do not pretend to say; they might have brought such a custom with them from the continent; but we believe the charge cannot be substantiated against the Kymry--the aborigines of Britain, among whom alone Druidism flourished in its purity. And we are confident that whosoever will be at the pains of instituting a comparison between the Droidism of Britain before Christianity, and its Christianity in the days of Queen Mary, he will be at no loss to find which of the two religions sacrificed the greater number of innocent human beings. The days of Druidism were days of transcendent light, liberty, and refinement, compared with those of Popery in the twelfth and three succeeding centuries.—Pp. 51, 52..

The design of the writer is throughout to exalt his favourite Druidism, no matter at what cost. Hence he leads us back to the first dispersion of mankind; he traces the precise route by which the original families, to whom these islands were divinely appointed in the days of Peleg, came over and settled here. We have a grave dissertation upon reconciling Geoffrey of Monmouth (save the mark !) with some other

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