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Tamulians of India have a common fountain and origin, like all the Arians; and that the innumerable diversities of spoken language characterising the former race are but the more or less superficial effects of their long and utter dispersion and segregation, owing to the savage tyranny of the latter race in days when the rights of conquest were synonymous with a license to destroy, spoil, and enslave. That the Arian population of India descended into it about 3000 years ago from the northwest as conquerors, and that they completely subdued all the open and cultivated parts of Hindostan, Bengal, and the most adjacent tracts of the Deccan,* but failed to extend their effective sway and colonisation further south, are quasi-historical deductionst confirmed daily more and more by the results of ethnological research. And we thus find an easy and natural explanation of the facts that in the Deccan, where the original tenants of the soil have been able to hold together in possession of it, the aboriginal languages exhibit a deal of integrity and refinement, whilst in the north, where the pristine population has been hunted into jungly and malarious recesses, the aboriginal tongues are broken into innumerable rude and shapeless fragments. Nevertheless those fragments may yet be brought together by large and careful induction; for modern ethnology has actually accomplished elsewhere yet more brilliant feats than this, throwing upon the great antehistoric movements of nations a light as splendid as useful. But if I hold forth, beforehand, the probable result of this investigation in the shape of a striking hypothesis in order to stimulate the painstaking accumulator of facts, and even intimate that our present materials already offer the most encouraging earnest of success, I trust that the whole tenor and substance of my essay on the Koch, Bódó, and Dhimál will suffice to assure all candid persons that I am no advocate for sweeping conclusions from insufficient premises, and that I desire to see the ethnology of India conducted upon the most extended scale, with careful weighing of every available item of evidence that is calculated to demonstrate the unity, or otherwise, of the Tamulian race.

* Telingana, Gujerat, and Maharashtra, or the Maratta country.

+ Brachmanes nomen gentis diffusissimæ cujus maxima pars in montibus (Ariana Cabul) degit, reliqui circa Gangem. Cellarius, Geogr.

This unity can, of course, only touch the grander classifications of language, and be analogous to that which aggregates, for example, Sanscrit, Greek, Teutonic, and Celtic.

[graphic]

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY OF THE ABORIGINAL LANGUAGES OF CENTRAL INDIA.

Air
Ant
Arrow
Bird
Blood
Boat
Bone
Buffalo
Cat
Cow
Crow
Day
Dog
Ear
Earth
Egg
Elephant
Eye
Father
Fire
Fish
Flower
Foot
Goat
Hair
Hand
Head
Hog
Horn
Horse
House

[graphic]

English.

I. Sinhbhúm

K6l.

2. Sóntál.

3. Bhúmij.

mérhad
sakam
marsal
horh
hanú, gári
chando, H.
i yo

mérhd
sikkam
tetaytúrra
horro

gari

búrú

Iron
Leaf
Light
Man
Monkey
Moon
Mother
Mountain
Mouth
Moschito
Name
Night
Oil
Plantain
River
Road
Salt
Skin
Sky
Snake
Star
Stone
Sun
Tiger
Tooth
Tree
Village
Water
Yam
I

médh
sákam
maskal
h6
sarrha, gári
chándú, H.
éáng
búrú
á
siki
nútúm
pindhá
súnúm
kodal
garra
horra
búlúng
úr
sirma
bing
épil
dirri
singi
garúmkúla
dathá, H.
dárú, s.
hattú
dah
merúmtosang
aing

mocha
sikri
nútum
nindhá
súnúm
kaira
garra
hor
búlúng
harta
sirma
bing
ipil
dirri
sing marsal
kúla
dátha
dáré
athú
dáh
da sáng
ingé

chandú, H.
mai, H.
búrú
alang
lútí
númú
nidha
súnúm
kodal
garra
horren
búlúng
úr
rimmil

bing
ipil
dirri
singi
kúlá
dátta
dárú
hathújé
dáh
sángá
|ing

* A misapplication, probably, of the Hindi word for sleep or sleepy.

† Sanscrit? and implies that the sun is worshipped. i yan

caret

Thou um umgé am inien am nin

imma He, she, it ini úní ini asán inni áth

caret We caret caret caret en allégé

nam, om caret
Ye
caret
caret
caret
ású
inkogbi
nina

úndé
They
caret
caret
caret
caret
ánkó

ásabar, áwar caret
Mine

ingréá
inya
enghi
jbátaná
ongki

nává ángdo
Thine
úmmá
ami
úmmá níenghi ametana ningki

plávútriand
His
ini
únéá
aigé
ásghi,
annerá tana áhiki

oná
Ours
allés
alléa
ábúsaban émbi

ahúá tana émki, námki mábaí
Yours
appéá
appé
caret
ássghi apia tana nimki

niá hille
Theirs
énkóá
únkúré

caret
ankóá tana ásá bériki oná and

ort. f oudong One

midh moy únta mia

pándong, únddi

kivong
Two
barria
barria
barria
enótan
baria

twr.
makis

ranú

in dual
Three
| apia
piá
apia
manótan apia

múnú
Four
úpúnia
ponia
úpúnia
nakhótan úpnia

nálú
Five
moya
mone gótang* monaya panjé gotan, H. monia

saijhan
Six
túria
túrúi gótang túrúyá
sé gotan, H. túria

sáróng
Seven
iya
lair gótang
| sáth, H. sat gotan, H. sdth, H.

yénú, yétú
Eight
irlia
iral gótang
áté gotan, H.

Same as Hindi
áth, H.

anamúr
Nine
aréá

and Urdu
aré gótang
nó gotan, H. nókó, H.

nó, H.
Ten
gelés
gél gótang
das, H,
das gotan, H. dasgo, H.

pada
Twenty
hissi
caret
caret
bís, H.
bís, H.

bisa, H.
Thirty
hissi gelés
bissi gél gótang moy hissi dasti dérh kori, H.

tis, H.

tís, H. Forty bárhissi bár hissi bár hissi bísénd

bár hissi dasgo

chális, H.
Fifty
moy hissigil
bár hissi gél bar hissi dasti dharihé kóri bár hissi dasgo

pachás, H.
A hundred
monay hissi
sé, H.

As in Urdu
midso

só, H.
Of
caret
caret
caret
ki, H.

orá, bará
To


caret

k0, H.

By affix to the baina From té té caret té sé, H.

noun

caret By, instr. tété

túlé caret caret átam

túrsé, dúrsé With, cum. tóté

túli caret gatt, minna guni

sang Without, sine. banóá

banóá caret ni | sama walo

bigúr * Gótang is surplusage and Hindi.

+ Ort to human beings; others to diverse things.

áth, H. nou, H.

moy hissi

sou, H.

ye
gai

sang, H.

[graphic]

In


On

ré chitan
Now
Then

en
When?

chúilá To-day

ná To-morrow

guphá
Yesterday

hola
Here

nétha
There
Where? okotai
Above

sirma
Below

súbá
Between talaré
Without, outside racháré
Within

bhitar, H.
Far

sanginiya
Near
Little

hüring
Much

ésú
How much? chi miáng
As

carent
So
Thus

inlíkaté
How?

chi líka
Why?

chikan minté

hán, H.
No

bano
(Do) not alam
And, also undo
Or

nado
This

néa That

énó

Yes

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