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able coincidences I refer the student to the works of Phillips and Driberg, merely observing in conclusion that it is but a sample of those analogies derivable from the same interesting quarter which I have already made good progress in the development of, and which when fully exhibited will go far to confirm the conviction that the Tartaric family is one and indivisible from the Caucasus to the Pacific.

The prospect of a reunion of all the Tartars suggests the consideration of a fitting designation for the whole; and, whatever my leaning towards the term Scythian, * from veneration for the father of history who first introduced this mighty herd to our view, I prefer upon the whole the more familiar appellation Tartar; first, because it has a sense as ample as our present requirement, in which respect it has no advantage over Scythian ; second, because it has an etymological significance thoroughly indigenous and in the highest degree appropriate, as well with reference to the structure of those tongues by the dissection of which we have come at a knowledge of the whole scope of Tartar affinities, as with regard to that characteristic idiom according to which the name of a tribe is the name of our species. Tá means man in a score of extant tongues; and tá designates numerous extant tribes stretching from the Altai to the Gulf of Siam, whilst the same or equivalent names prevail throughout the Mongolian countries and in Caucasus ;t and, lastly, the reitera

Essay on Koch, Bódó, and Dhimal, preface, pages 8, 9, where the reader may see that seven years ago I had a strong presentiment of what I now hope to demonstrate.

+ Tshá-ri, tshé-tshé-ngh, &c., come from the tá and sá roots man, and are seen in similar combination, being synonyms, in the Chinese and Georgian tsé meaning man, whereof tsé-s is a diminutive. The Chinese call the Tartars indifferently thá-tha and thá-tsé, and so do the Newárs of Népal, whilst ta-i, ta. j-mó, ta-i-lúng, ta-i-né, ta-j-yé, names of tribes from A sam to the Ocean, are all not only tá but tá-tá, since the second syilable is in all a synonym, and therefore as equivalent as tshé-tshé and tá-tá, which are reiterations. As instances, familiar to us in India, of a tribe-name signifying also man in the language of that tribe, I may mention a-nam, mru, k lun, ka mi, ku-mi, kong, lau, mó-n, mo.i, bar-ma. These are simple. Mi-shi.mi, mú-r-mi, &c., are compound. Occasion. ally, as in Burmese, the root may be obsolete in the human sense; but it will always be fund in its derivatives or in the proximate tongues, leaving the principle of gentile nomenclature indisputable. In Mishimi we have the mi and

tion whereby the Tá, or Zenghis' clansmen came to be called
tá-tá, vel thá-thá (men pre-eminently, quasi Allemanni) is a
normal sample of one of the chief constructive principles of
these tongues. Wherefore I would abide by that mediæval
designation by which all the races beyond the confines of
Europe have been known to Europe in modern times, and
which from and after the middle ages superseded the classical
term Scythian-a term of as wide import as the other and so
far equally fitting, but now laid aside, and never so etymo-
logically just as Tartar, the very r of which word, though
carped at by half-informed critics, is in fact thoroughly in
accordance with the jus et norma of Tartaric speech, every-
where from Oceanic to the Caucasian region.
shi roots for man, the former reiterated. In Múrmi we have the mi root reiter-
ated in different phases (mú and mi). In Burma we have a third phase of the
same root (má) with the bá root and synonym preceding it; and lest this etymo.
logy should startle my readers, I will add that this very word barma means man
in the Magar tongue, that is, in one of those Himalayan tongues whose close
affinity to the Burmese language I have lately shown.

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Pénjúr of Lhassa, 30 years old.
Total height,
Length of head,
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Breadth of chest only,
Sh. point to sh. point,
Arm and hand,
Girth of chest,
Girth of arm,
Girth of forearm,
Girth of thigh,
Girth of calf,
Length of foot,
Breadth of foot,
Length of head,
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A fine young man, but low in flesh from sickness, and the muscles flaccid. Colour a clear ruddy brownish or brunette rather deep hued, as dark as any of the Cis-Himálayans and as most high-caste Hindus. No red on cheeks, which are sunk and hollow. Hair moderately coarse, black, copious, straight, shining, worn long and loose, divided from the top of head. Moustache very small, black. No symptom of beard nor any hair on chest; sufficient on mons martis, where it is black, and on armpits also. No whiskers. Face moderately large, sub-ovoid, widest between angles of jaws, less between cheek-bones, which are prominent, but not very. Forehead rather low and narrowing somewhat upwards; narrowed also transversely, and much less wide than the back of head. Frontal sinus large, and brows heavy. Hair of eyebrows and lashes sufficient. Former not arched, but obliquely descendant towards the base of nose. Eyes of good size and shape, but the inner angle decidedly dipped or inclined downwards, though the outer not curved up. Iris a fine deep, clear, chestnut brown. Eyes wide apart, but well and distinctly separated by the basal ridge of nose; not well opened, cavity being filled with flesh. Nose sufficiently long and well raised even at base, straight, thick, and fleshy towards the end, with large wide nares nearly round. Zygomæ large and salient, but moderately so. Angles of the jaws prominent, more so than zygomæ, and face widest below the ears. Mouth moderate, well formed, with well-made closed lips hiding the fine, regular, and no way prominent teeth. Upper lip long. Chin rather small, round, well formed, not retiring. Vertical line of the face very good, not at all bulging at the mouth, nor retiring below, and not much above, but more so there towards the roots of the hair. Jaws large. Ears moderate, well made, and not starting from the head. Head well formed and round, but larger à parte post than à parte ante or in the frontal region, which is somewhat contracted crosswise, and somewhat narrowed pyramidally upwards. Body well made and well proportioned. Head well set on the neck, neither too short nor too thick. Chest wide, deep, well arched. Shoulders falling, fine. Trunk not in excess of proportionate length compared with the extremities, nor they compared with the trunk and whole stature. Arms rather long, within four inches of knees. Legs and arms deficient in muscular development from sickness. Hands and feet small and well formed, with instep hollow and heel moderate. Toes not spread, nor splay foot. Mongolian cast of features decided, but not extremely so, and expression intelligent and amiable.

DARJEELING, 30th April 1848.



Ar the close of last year I had the honour to submit to the Society a summary view of the affinities of the sub-Himálayan aborigines. I have now the honour to submit a similar view of the affinities of the aborigines of Central India. The extra copies of the former paper which were sent to me by the Society I forwarded to Colonels Ouseley and Sleeman, to Major Napleton, Mr. Elliot of Madras, and other gentlemen, with a request that they would get the vocabulary filled up from the languages of the several aborigines of their respective neighbourhoods. The three former gentlemen have obligingly attended to my wishes, and I am assured that Mr. Elliot also is busy with the work. Of the seven languages which I now forward the comparative vocabulary of, the three first came from Chyebossa, where Colonel Ouseley's assistant, Captain Haughton, prepared them; the fourth and fifth direct from Colonel Ouseley himself at Chota Nagpur; the sixth from Bhaugalpur, prepared by the Rev. Mr. Hurder; and the seventh from Jabbalpur, where Colonel Sleeman's principal assistant drew it up for me.

The affinities of these tongues are very striking, so much so that the five first may be safely denominated dialects of the great Kól language; and through the U'raon speech we trace without difficulty the further connection of the language of the Kóles with that of the “hill men" of the Rajmahal and Bhaugalpur ranges. Nor are there wanting obvious links between the several tongues above enumerated-all which we may class under the head Kol—and that of the Gónds of the Vindhia, whose speech again has been lately shown by Mr. Elliot to have much resemblance both in vocables and structure to the cultivated tongues of the Deccan. Thus we are already rapidly approaching to the realisation of the hypothesis put forth in my essay on the Koch, Bódó, and Dhimál, to wit, that all the



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