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Latham perhaps, whose quick eye will not fail to catch it, will be able to tell whether the same peculiarity distinguishes the Circassian tongue. For myself I doubt not it will so prove, because the rule for nouns is but another phase of the rule for pronouns.

In the meantime, the striking grammatical analogies* I have pointed out stand in no need of further elucidation, and these analogies, together with the explanation from the Tibetan of the widely-used but heretofore unexplained Ra suffix, constitute in themselves, and as sustaining all those numerous identities of the primitive vocables which have been adverted to, something very like a demonstration of the Mongolidan affinities of the Caucasians, though I would be understood to speak with a due sense of the disqualifications inseparable from my secluded position and want of access to books. I subjoin Latham's sample of the construction of the Circassian language, with its equivalent in Gyárúng.

"I give to my father the horse.” Circassian. --Sara s-ab

acé I

my father horse Gyárúng.-Ngarét nga-pé

boroh I



my father

“ In the house are two doors ” is, in like manner, two doors” in the Circassian and Gyárúng tongues.



its servile adjuncts, though clearly, as to simple compounds, constantly observing the rules of contraction and of substitution noted in the text. In the Gyárúng sentence, Tizécazé papun, he summoned them to feast, the word for to feast shows the root repeated twice, and each time with a separate servile, though we have here only one verb, not two verbs ; and in kalarlar, round, still no compound, we have the root repeated, but yet with a servile, though only one, being the prefix ka. In such cases that servile is usually omitted, as kaka, sky; pyepye, bird; chacha, hot.

* Those analogies might now be largely extended did health and time permit. Take the following instances :-Tam-bus, father; imbas, my father, in Uraon. Sampa, father; ampa, my father, in Kiránti, Ku-kos, child ; ing-kos, my child, U'raon. Tam, sam, ku, serviles, replaced by the pronouns; compare Malayan sam-piyan, san-diri, kan-diri, ka-manus, k'anak, &c.

+ Ra suffix subjoined for illustration though not in use with this person. See prior note.


The plural sign, kwé in Circassian, myé or kamyé Gyárúng, is in both languages alike “the beginning and end of declension.”

The following list of Circassian and Gyárúng pronouns may facilitate the reader's apprehension.


Circassian pronouns-Sa-ra


U-1 Gyárúng pronouns-Nga Nan-ré Wa-tu

The same conjoined with a noun.
Circassian.t-S-ab W-ab
Gyarủng.-Nga-pé Na-pé

Wa.pé} My, Thy, His, father.




Man.-K'mari in Georgian

Maré in Suanic

Maro in Lepcha
Muru in Súuwár
M’rn in Mrú
Mano in Newári
Mansi in Bódó
Múa-máre nomen gentis

Man.-Lé-g in Osetic

Lé-ng in Burmese
Len-ja in Magar
Lú in Burmese
Ló-k in Tai
Ló-g-nya in Khas
K'lú-n in K'lún

K, prefix, servile, as in Indo-Chinese k'lun, a

man, and Malayan k'anak, a child ; a sort

of article and equivalent to the suffixed k. Má, with the customary change of vowel (see

on to mo-i and mi), is the root throughout, and it takes the common ra suffix, likewise with the usual vocalic diversity. But observe that in m'ru this servile absorbs the vowel of the root, as in m’se, Georgian

for mé-se, voce fire. \ This is the first of numerous samples in which

the name of the species is that of a tribe. Means husband. | Means male, especially human, lén, the root,

having the sense of mankind, or both sexes. K suffix, servile articular like the g in lé-g

and 16-g. Nya, a synonym. Compare k'amari and k'anak. Lú root. No.

men gentis necnon hominis.
Pú suffix, a diminutive. Lé, lá, 16, the root,

as in man.
Pa, diminutive =pu. L6, root.

Boy.—Lap-pu in Osetic

Lok-pa in Tai

* Ka is the prefix, appended as usual. I have already remarked that the Gyárún tongue is distinguished among its allies by its extensive employment of tbis class of particles. The Burmese tongue makes less 11se of them, and in its mys, much, many, we have the Gyá. rúng plural sign, myé, or ka-myé. The Suanic maré and Georgian k'mari for man, afford precise Caucasian equivalent quoad the servile ka, showing it to be dropped or retained according to circumstances or to dialects in Caucasus.

| Ab, father-pé, father, less the prefix.

Lú root with articular, k suffixed. Wan,

doubtful. Compare wak, in Armenian, sáwak, a child; sa in Burmese having the

root only. Shi, euphonised sha = sa and cha and za, in

the following words ; or it may be bi, bo,

bu, junior, and shi, human. Means daughter.

{ { diminu

tive, euphonised to vowel of root. Male and female respectively. The diminutive cha is seen in the conjunct

form in Osetic sa-ch voce earth. Zo servile, as in Lazic bo-zo. 2 = S, alike in Caucasian and Mongolian


{T' Fertile. Mó, = má supra et mi infra, is the

Lúk-wan in Tai

Bitshi in Geor. Young person of either sex


Bi-shi in Lazic
Bo-shi in Mingrelian
Bo-zo in Lazic
Bisha, Bishi in Bódó
Bu-cha in Takpa

Pu-sa in Maplu
Po-ze in Pasuko

Man.-Moi in Osetic

Moi in Kong
Pú-moi in Ple
Mo-cha in Newári

Means sister.
Means woman, pú being a feminine sign. Moi

therefore is man. Nomina gentium. See note at end of supple.

ment. Means child, cha being a diminutive, = ga,

supra. Mú is the root. For change of vowel therein,

see note, voce dog. Rú, the ra suffix, with its vowel harmonised

to that of root. \ Means boy, owing to the sa suffix. Tsé there.

fore is man.

Múi-bú in Takpa

Mú-rú in Súnwar

Man.-Tsé-s in Georgian

Tsé in Chinese
Man.--Zo-zi in Osetic

Ka-zi in Georgian
V-zi in Horpa
D-zi in Chinese

Zi, = si and shi, is the root. The latter ap

pears in bit-shi, tsé, &c. It is a very widely, spread man root, signifying adults as well

as juniors. The root is ú, meaning man. The conjunct s

is the feminising suffix. U'-er-ti, ú-shi, &c. have the same root. Rés is the ra suffix, with the sa particle repeated.

Woman.-U's in Osetic

U's-res in Gyárúng

Woman.-Swa-n in Osetic

Swa-s-ni in Khas Brother

Dá in Georgian or

Dá in Sontal

Dá in Kuswár
Da-s, Dá in Uraon
A-da in Bódó
Dá-ni in Dhimáli

D'si in Chinese
Ego = Homo.—Mi in Suanic

Mé in Georgian
Mé in Mingrelian
Má in Osetic

Means girl.
Mean boy and girl.

Means virgin.

Mean I, the pronoun. No fact is better

established in Glossology than the frequent equivalency of the roots for man and I, and it is of much importance to note them here. This and all the following mean man. It is

Mi in Tibetan
Mi in Lhopa
Mi in Murmi
Mi in Moitai
Mhi in Gúrúng
Bbar-mi in Magar
Bar-ma, nomen gentis
Tir-mi in Gyarúng
Mi-va in Gáró
Yap-mi in Limbu
Mib-pa in Kuki
Ka-mi in Kámi
Kú-mi in Kúrni
Pú-mi in Plé
Mi-jang in Newer
Mi-sa in Newar
Mi-ya in Newar
Miyau-lau in Roinga
Mim-ma in Burmese
Sa-mi in Burmese
S'mé in Horpa
Se-mé in Kolun

Mé-jing in Lau 1.-Sa in Circassian

Sa-ya in Malay

Sa in Tagalan

Sa in Malay

remarkable how far the pronominal sense of mi prevails in Caucasus, and the nominal in the regions east of it. But they run into each other, and the root very generally is further employed to designate tribes from Caucasus to Indo-China, as mi-shi-mi, from the mi and shi roots, mú-r-mi, from the mu and mi roots, &c., &c.

Tribe names derived from name of species--a

very extensively diffused principle. The etymology of Burma or the Burmese is thus

recovered. See Supplement.
Mi, the species ; jang and sa sexual adjuncts.

Jang = mas. Sa = fem.
Means girl. Ya, ditferential servile with refer.

ence to the various senses of the mi root. Means woman. Root mi. Ma is a feminine

and maternal sign. Means girl. See note in sequel. S'mé means girl, like sa-mi and sé-me. The

sa particle in various phases, added to mi

Ya, a differential servile.
An article, See Crawford's work for proof

how these so-called articles blend with the
Means one. Smidt wittily remarks on the

perpetual coincidence of the first personal pronoun, and the first numeral, which is also constantly equivalent to the indefinite

article, where wanting. In composition only, as ha-sum, give to me.

Sú-m in Vayu

1.-Má in Osetic

Má in Mingrelian
Má in Lazic
Mi in Suanic
Ma in Tipnio
Mo-n in Sap

Compare moi, man, in Osetic and món the

Indo-Chinese tribe name.
Deduced from the derivatives mi-ni and mi.

ning-ge. So mi in the sense of man is
deduced from mim-ma and sa-mi in Bur.

Mi in Mongol
Mi in Mantchu

1.-Jé-s in Armenian

Ji in Newári vJa in Horpa

See remarks, voce dog, on the vocalic changes

to which all roots nearly are subject.

* The basis of all these tongues from Caucasus to Oceanica is a small number of mono. syllabic roots bearing necessarily many senses. Hence to distinguish between those several senses is the chief function of the servile adjuncts of the roots. lu this language, for example, the root wa means come, tooth, rice, rain, throw, and be.

} in Kámi

1.-A'-z, A-8 in Osetic An-ka in Kiránti

A' is the root throughout, za, sa, ka, ku, being A-ku, A' in Malay

serviles, though some of them, as ka, freA' in Manyak

quently take the place of the root,
Ká in Dhimali
Thou.—She-n in Georgian

Si in Mingrelian
Si in Suanic
T'shi in Mongol

Si, shí ; sé, shé; sá, sbá, sú, are the several Se-n in Túrki

phases of the root, or cycle of customary Sa-n in Onigur

variation, just as in the nouns. See remarks on

kha" voce dog. Sa in Finnic Cbhá in Newári (bá in Sokpa Sú in Tai

The plural, Ye.
He.- Ná in Armenian

Ná in Chinese
Ná in Malay
Ni in Khyeng
No in Anam

Ha prefix and I suffix, servile.
He.-U'-i in Circassian

U'-i in Sóntál
O'é in Magyar
U' in Circassian
U' in Gáró
O' in Onigur and Túrki
Wo in Newari and Gondi

Wa in Gúrúng, in Dhimáli, and in Tunglhu
He.-I' in Circassian

l'in Mantchu
l' in Burmese
I'in Dhekra
I' in Malay and Tagala Deduced from i-ti, i-tu, &c.

In composition as conjunct prefix or suffix or

as disjunct, eg., t-ap, his father; apa-t, his

father; handa-ta-r, he went. See Rosen, He.-Ta in Circassian Ta in Sóntál

Phillips, and Driberg. With regard to the Ta in Gondi

transposed pronoun, see note voce fire. Té in Mongol

The law of transposition is so important T6 in Mantchu

that I add the following samples to show Té-ún in Dhekra

that even where the actual practice has Tá in Esthonian

ceased, analogy supports its quondam use. Thá in Gyami

Suffix Possessive. Prefix Possessive.
Thi in Gurúng
Thé in Murmi

Baba-ku, Malay. Ang-upa, Váyu.
A ba-im, Kuswar. Im-bas, U'raon.
A pa-ing, Sóntál. Nga-pe, Gyárúng.

= my father,
Thú in Burmese

In i-thu, ithi.
Tá.i in Dhekra

Means she.
He.-1'-8 in Georgian in Mingrelian

See Remarks in Supplement.
I-té in Dhekra

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