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English.

Burmese or
Myamma.

Talien or Món.

Toung-lhoo.

Shán.

Siamese.

bpa
atway
atoo
la mod
akha
a-khalarau
tang waynau

Without
In
On
Now
Then
When ?
To-day
To-morrow
Yesterday
Here
There
Where?
Above
Below
Between
Without, outside
Within
Far
Near
Little
Much
How much ?
As

pu
long
ngá-khayen
moung ma
teu ma
han-né
mu-reu
má-ha
yo
ea-h'sú
eu-hmay

lee ya

en ké


a-htámha
apau
yákoo
hto akha
bay.thaukha
thu khana
net hpangha
ma-na-ga
thee mha
ho-mha
bay-mha
a-htet-mha
ouk-mha
alay-mha
apyenmha
a-hlaymha
awá.mha
anee-mha
ta-htset kalai
apon
bay-louk
kai-tho
thu-kai-tho
thee atihn
bay-nay
ban-pyoolo
hot-kai
mahot-bou
ma-lot-boo
yuay

let-ka-na
kha-na-nau
kha-na-ko
alorau
atota
kha ta ta
adho
manga
kha-tway
noo-ma-way
tsouk
soot
hbau
ma-tsee
nway tseik-nau
nyoung-tseik-kau
top-peun
tsou-la
moo-parau
tot-kwai
ba-tsen
hó-ka-lon
young

enla
akha
ta-h'tanu
en-pu
byá
lau

a
kheing hmay
nay-yó
nay•y
nay-yo
leu-may

mai
kanoung
ka-nouk
mayohnihn
chyain-hnigh
chyain-lu
ma-hniht
má-hpot
ma-wa
kaniht
ka-po
kalau
pamon
palon
akhun
ka-nouk
ka noung
an-kén
an-san
aeet
taima
hta-noung
neik-youk
tso-neik-youk
tso-na-youk
tso-hoo
pen-htsau
htsouk-hée
ma-tsouk
ma-het-a

khan-ná
khan-mon
pá-too-nee
hpá la
hpalahighn
wan-nee
hpoonei
ma-wa-nee
hta nee
hai-nan
kalau
tee-nan
khan la
khalan
kban-nouk
khan-noung
ka-rihn
kara
net-ta-ró
hton
htau riht
nee
ram-nee
men-ran-nee
ran-ribn
hta mihn
tsen
mai-htsa
mai-htan

So

h'twa may

Thus
How?
Why?
Yes
No
(Do) not
And, also

mwa
ta-mwa tew

la

mai-pen-yau
née lai
nan-lai
níhn-louk
ayo-loung
nihn-loung
hpayla
hpayla-righm
kénn
kenn
nona
tein
ho-rau
raung-hihn
nenroo
hoo-tsa

Be silent
Speak
Come
Go

tso-neik-ma-tsouk
tso-niht
tso-nan
an-loung-lai
ka-tsan-lay
bpoung
pen-htsaytsó-tsó
pen-htsaytsó-tsó
kyen
kyen
nonn
tén
kho
hink
yoo-hlseet-hlseet
sat
mba
kwa
tsot-roo
nan-you
lay-yvó
len-kwa
pan
an
pau-tibn
out-tihn
oung-ma
oung-kwa
hóhkhen
htan loo
hoo-likli
lat

ma

уо. ta-kau

ta-hlon ee-la-rau

lisa-may-nay moo-gau-rau

lo-may nay
nyay-gau-rau

pa-may nay
mway-theik-payai
kha-ra-tan-mwai-mwai
tsee
thou

nwa
tet

ping
ngoo

ting
garihn

nga
rán

ngen
mon-ka-nouk-ka-nouk hnging
han-kai

ung-dau
ka-lon-ra

lóne

lway
monlet kha-tau ung-hohung
kha-gyo

ung-lan
kyay

lay
gareetaa

law
ka

pha
keet

khone
tat

tway
tsa

ma-thay keet-nen

htoo-tone keet-na

htoo-lway ka-toung

hya or young kalan

heung tiht-ma-ra

tha-na han-ma-rai

thou-than khá

heu hakha

kay bá

khwa

[blocks in formation]

VOL II.

Or
This
That
Which?
What
Who?
Anything
Anybody
Eat
Drink
Sleep
Wake
Laugh

Weep

th6-mahot thee-ha ho-ha bay-thin ba-lai bay-tho tá-sontakhoo tá-tsontáyouk tsa-thee thouk-thee aick-thee nó-thee yay-thee ngó-theo tét-tet naithee pyauhtso-thee la-thee thwáu-thee mat-tal-nay-thee htihn-thee lay-thee pyai-thwau-thee pai-thee yoo-thee yeik-thee that-thee yoa-khaf-theo you-thwau-thee mhyouk-thee na-htoun-thee nálay-thee pyau-thee koung-thee ma-koung chyann-thee

hó-to-tseik-ko enan

aara

Stand up

Sit down
Move, walk
Run
Give
Take
Strike
Kill
Bring
Take away.
Lift up, raise
Hear
Understand

Tell, relate
o Good

Bad
Cold

out-tihn
oung-man
oung-kot
houn-khan
htawlon
hoo-let
lat
lee-youk
ma-lee
kann

lee yau

ma-lee kat

[graphic]
[graphic]

English.

Burmese or
Myamma.

Talien or Mon.

Toung-lhoo.

Shán.

Siamese.

chyo

neu

Hot
Raw
Ripe
Sweet
Sour
Bitter
Handsome
Ugly
Straight
Crooked
Black
White
Red
Green
Long
Short

len

poo-thee kata

kheu méik

met tsen-thee tsen-tsangeet ta-theet

chyo
mhai-thee
too

hma
a-htsot

wen
chyáthee
tat

tron

wann
khyen-thee
hpya

h’sya
htsol

htso chánhee ka-tau

khu khon

khon hla thee gau

tá-rá
han-leen

han lan
ayot-htso-thee hén

han-tichk

hou hikh
hpoung-thee
touk

tsone
tsoo

htsó
kouk thee
ta-nouk

ogá-ken
kot

kot mai thee katsau

phren
lan

lan
hpyoothee
hpa-tïhn

bwa
khoung

khoung
nee-thee
hpa-keet
tá-nya

tai
tsein-thee
hnen-ta-nyeet

ling chyo

khay
shac thee
kalein

h'to
young

young
to-thee
kalée

deng
tot

tsánn
myen-thee
tha-lon

h'to
tson

thóhn
poothee
kwa


pauk

tee
dhot


leikh

let
kyoc thee
tha-not

tan
youhk

kalóhn lon-thee kha-toung

tung-lung
món

htsee
lai-htouk nai thee pon-ka-lan

seet-seng
руау

htsee-len
pya-thee
kha-tai-thee

sau-Pyay
pyee

hpen wau-thee ka-ra

pay
pyee

awen
pen-thee
tha rai

hyeng
raung

hpóln
anyoung
ka-won

tá-wa
kon

mai
yai-nat-khyer htan-tikh

h'ta-en-h'tee
rat-nan

rat-nan ngat-mot khyen ka-lo hpyo

ha-khó ok-pyat

aotrat N.B.—English system of spelling used in the above, which I have not ventured to alter.

Short

}

man

ngay theo

Small
Great
Round
Square
Flat
Fat
Thin
Weariness
Thirst
Hunger

SECTION VII.

ON THE

MONGOLIAN AFFINITIES OF THE CAUCASIANS.

ALL residents in the East who take an interest in the more general topics of Ethnology must have been exceedingly struck by Dr. Latham's recent imposing exhibition of the vast ethnic domain of the Mongolidæ. From Easter Island to Archangel, from Tasmania and Madagascar to Kamtchatka and the mouths of the Lena, all is Mongolian! Caucasus itself, the Arian Ararat, is Mongolian! India, the time-honoured Aryavartta, is Mongolian ! Granting that this remarkable sketch * is in good part anticipatory with reference to demonstrative proofs, it is yet, I believe, one which the progress of research has already done, and is now doing much, and will do yet more, to substantiate as a whole; though I think the learned author might have facilitated the acceptance of his splendid paradoxes, if, leaving the Osetiť and the Bráhmans in unquestioned possession of their Arian honours, he had contented himself with maintaining that the mass of Caucasian and Indian population is nevertheless of Turanian, not Arian, blood and breed; and if, instead of laying so much stress upon a special Turanian type (the Seriform), he had been more sensible that the technical diagnostics, which have been set upon the several subdivisions of the Mongolidæ, are hindrances, not helps, to a ready perception of the common characteristics of the whole race.

* Natural History of Man : London, 1850.

+ It will be seen in the sequel that in the course of those investigations which gave the “ Comparative Analysis” its present amplitude, I satisfied myself that the Oseti are Mongolian.

I do not propose on the present occasion to advert to what has been lately done in India demonstrative of the facts, that the great mass of the Indian population, whether now using the Tamulian or the Prakritic tongues, whether now following or not following the Hindu creed and customs, is essentially non-Arian as to origin and race, but that this mass has been acted upon and altered to an amazing extent by an Arian element, numerically small, yet of wonderful energy and of high antiquity. These are indubitable facts, the validity of which I am prepared with a large body of evidence to establish; and they are facts which, so far from being inconsistent with each other, as Latham virtually assumes, are such that their joint operation during ages and up to this hour is alone capable of explaining those physical and lingual characteristics of the Indian population, which Dr. Latham's theory leaves not merely wholly unexplained, but wholly inexplicable. I must however postpone their discussion till I come to treat of the Newár and Khas tribes of Népal. In the meanwhile, and with reference to Dr. Latham's crowning heresy that the most Caucasian of Caucasians (the Irôn or Oseti) are "more Chinese than Indo-European," I have a remarkable statement to submit in confirmation of his general, though not his special, position; my agreement with him being still general, not special.

His general position quoad Caucasus is, that the Caucasian races are Mongolidan; and, availing himself with unusual alertness of the results of local Indian research, he has, at pp. 123-128, given copious extracts from Brown's IndoChinese Vocabularies, as printed in our Journal; and he has then compared these vocables with others proper to the Caucasian races. My recent paper upon the close affinity of the Indo-Chinese tongues with those of the Himalaya and of Tibet, will show how infinitely the so-called “ Chinese" element of this comparison may be extended and confirmed; and my Sifanese series, now nearly ready, will yet further augment this element of the comparison, which in these its fuller dimensions certainly displays an extraordinary identity in many of the commonest and most needful words of the languages of Caucasus on the one hand, and of Tibet, Sifan,

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