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tribes, like the Khyeng, and Kámi, and Kúmi, and Mrú, and Sák of Arrakan, whose vocables constitute the greatest part of the first half of the vocabularies herewith forwarded.

In the course of recording in our Journal these numerous vocabularies, I have purposely avoided any remarks on the affinities they suggest or demonstrate, intending to take up that subject when they should be completed; but the high interest * excited by my Himálayan series, in connection with the bold and skilful researches which are now demonstrating the unparalleled diffusion over the earth of that branch of the human family to which the Himalayans belong, has induced me on the present occasion to deviate partially from that rule, and to at once compare Captain Phayre's Arrakanese vocables with my own Himalayan † and Tibetan ones. Having been so fortunate as lately to procure an ample Sifánese series, comprising the tongues of the several peoples bordering on China and Tibet between Konkonúr and Yúnán, and having, moreover, made some progress in a careful analysis of a normal and of an abnormal sample of the Himálayan tongues, with a view to determining the amounts of the Turánian and Arian elements, I shall ere long find occasion to recur to the general affinities of the Indian Mongolidæ. In the meanwhile, the subjoined comparison of several Arrakanese tongues with those of Tibet and of the Eastern Himalaya will be read with surprise and pleasure by many who, accustomed to regard the Himálayans as Hindus, and the Indo-Chinese, like the Chinese, as distinct from the people of Asie Centrale, and from the Tibetans, will be astonished to find one type of language prevailing from the Káli to the Koladân, and from Ladakh to Malacca, so as to bring the Himálayans, Indo-Chinese, and Tibetans into the same family.

That such, however, even in the rigid ethnological sense, is the fact will hardly be denied by him who carefully examines the subjoined table, or the documents from which it is taken, because not only are the roots of the nouns and verbs similar

* Latham's History of Man and Ethnology of British Colonies.

+ My own Himálayan series will be found in the Journal, No. 185, for December 1847. The Arrakanese series is annexed hereto.

to identity, but the servile particles are so likewise, and that as well in themselves as in the uses made of them, and in the mutations to which they are liable. It should be added that the resemblances cited are drawn not from "ransacked dictionaries," but from vocabularies of less than 300 words for each tongue.

To those who, not content with this abstract, shall refer to the original documents, I may offer two remarks suggested by their study to myself. Ist. The extraordinary extent to which the presently contemplated affinities hold good has been made out by the helps afforded by the series of cognate tongues, whereby the synonyma defective in one tongue are obtained from another, whilst the varying degrees and shades of deviation are a clue to the root or basis.t 2d. The other remark suggested by the comparison of the vocabularies is, that it is the nouns and verbs, and not the pronouns and numerals, which constitute the enduring part of these languages; and that consequently, whatever may be the case in regard to the Arian group of tongues, we must not always expect to find the best evidence of family connection in regard to the Turanian languages among the pronouns and numerals. Indeed the confused character of these parts of speech seems to be a conspicuous feature of the Mongolian tongues.

Comparison of Tibetan and Himálayan tongues on one hand, and of the Indo-Chinese on the other.

Blood. Thak in Bhotia, Thyak in Lhópa, Vi in Lepcha.

Thwé in Burmese, Thé in Sák, Ka-thí in Khyeng, A-ti in Kámi, Wi in Mrú.

Boat. Thú in Sérpa.

Thé in Burmese.

In order to appreciate this remark and to trace the elements of the vocables, see analytic observations of the following paper on Caucasian and Mongolian Words, appended to the list of those words.

Take the radical word for dog, as a sample. We have khyi, khíá, khí, kí, khwé, kwé, kwí, kú, kí-chá, kú-chú, khó, kyo, cho-i. For the appended particles and their mutations I must refer to the original documents, and to the future confirmations to be supplied by my Sifánese series of words.

The first line gives the Northern series, the second the Southern.

Cat.-Si-mi in Bhotia, Si-mi in Sokpa.

Min in Khyeng, Min in Kámi.
Crow.-O'-la in Lhópa, A'-wá in Limbu.

O'-á in Kúmi, Wá á in Kámi and in Mrú.
Day.-Nyi-ma in Bhotia, Nhí in Newári, Nyim in Lhópa.
Né in Burmese, Ni in Mrú.

Dog.—Khyi in Bhotia, Khi in Lhópa, Kú-chú in Kiránti,
Ki-cha in Newári, Khia in Dhimali.

Khwé in Burmese, Ta-kwi in Mrú, Kú in Sák.

Ear.-Ná in Bhotia, Na-vo in Lhópa.

Ná in Burmese, Ka-ná in Sák.

Eye.-Mig in Bhotia, A-mik in Lepcha, Mó in Múrmi and

Myé-tsi in Burmese, A-mi in Kámi and Sák, Min in

Father.—Phá in Bhotia, Amba in Limbú.

Phá é in Burmese, Ampa in Kumi.

Fire.-Mé or Mi in Bhotia, and in all Himálayan tongues.
Mí, Má, Má i, in Burmese, Kámi, and Mrú.

Fish.-Nyá in Bhotia, Ngyá in Lhópa, Ngó in Lepcha, Nyau in

Ngá in Burmese, Ngú in Khyeng, Nghó in Kám. Foot.-Káng in Bhotia, Káng in Lhópa, Khwe-li in Súnwár. Khyé in Burmese, Ká-kó in Khyeng, Khou in Kúmi. Goat. -Rá in Bhotia.

Ta-rá in Mrú.

Hair-A-chóm in Lepcha, Chúm in Magar.

A-shám in Kámi, Shám in Mrú and Kúmi.

Head.-Gó in Bhotia.

Ghóng in Burmese.

Hog.-Phak in Bhotia and Lhópa and Kiránti, Wak in Magar.
Ta-pak in Mrú and Vak in Sák.
Horn.-Ar-kyok in Sérpa, A-róng in Lepcha.

A kyi in Khyeng, A-rúng in Sák.

Horse. Tá in Bhotia and Lhópa, Sa la in Newári.

Tá-phú (phú, male suffix) in Kámi, Sapú in Sák (púidem). House.-Khyim in Bhotia and Lepcha. Yúm in Magar. Kyim in Sák, Kim in Mrú, Um in Kúmi.

Man. Mi in Bhotia and most Himálayan tongues, Maro in
Lepcha, Múrú in Súnwár.

Ka-mi in Kámi, Mrú in Mrú dialect.
(Ka-mi in Newári means craftsman.)

Moon.-Lá-va in Bhotia, Lhópa, Lepcha, &c., &c.

Lá in Burmese and Khyeng, Pú-lá in Mrú. Mountain.-Gún in Newári.

Ta-kún in Kámi.

Name.-Ming in Bhotia and Lhópa and Limbú and Múrmi, Náng in Newári

A-mí in Burmese, A-mín in Kámi, Na-mí in Khyeng. Night.-Sa-náp in Lepcha.

Nyá in Burmese.

Oil.—Si-di in Magar.

Shi in Burmese and Kámi and Mrú, Si-dak in Sák. Road.-Lam in Bhotia, and all the Himálayan tongues. Lam in Burmese, Khyeng, Kámi, and Sák.

Salt.-Tshá in Bhotia and Lhôpa, Chhá in Himálayan tongues (most) Súng in Bódó.*

Shá in Burmese, Tsi in Khyeng, Súng in Sák. Skin.—Pá-kó in Lhópa, Dhi in Gúrúng, Di in Múrmi. Pé in Kúmi, Pi in Mrú.

Sky.-Mú in Múrmi, Mún in Gúrúng.

Mú in Mrú, Mó in Burmese. Snake.-Búl in Magar, Bú-sa in Súnwár.

Phúl in Khyeng, Pú-vi in Kúmi.

Stone.-Lóng in Lepcha, Lúng in Limbú, Lhúng in Magar.
Lún in Khyeng, Ka-lún in Kámi, Ta-lún in Sák.

In the verbs, again, we have

Eat. Sá in Lhópa, Zó, Só, in Bhotia, Ché in Limbú, Chó in Kiránti.

Sá in Burmese, Tsá in Kámi, Tsá in Kúmi.

Drink.—Thúng in Bhotia, Thông in Lhópa, Thúng in Limbú and Múrmi, &c.

Thouk in Burmese.

*My Bódó and Dhimál vocabularies will be found in the Journal, as well as the Himálayan series. I take this occasion to intimate my now conviction that the Bódó, Dhimál, and Kócch tribes belong to the Tibetan and Himálayan stock rather than to the Tamilian; that is, with reference to India, to the more recent race of Tartar immigrants, not to the more ancient and more altered.

Sleep.-I'p in Súnwár, I'p in Limbú, Im in Kiránti.

I'p in Khyeng, I' in Kámi, I' in Kúmi.

Laugh.-Yé in Limbú, Nyé in Múrmi, Nhyú in Newári.

Yé in Burmese, A-nwi in Khyeng, Am-nhwi in Kúmi. Weep.—Nú, ngó, in Bhotia, ngú in Lhópa and Sérpa, Khwó in


Ngó in Burmese, and Khá in Kámi

Say, tell.-Shód in Bhotia.

Shó in Burmese.

Come. -Wá in Newári.

Vá in Kámi.

Go.-Lau in Súnwár.

Lá in Kámi and in Kúmi.

Sit down.—Det in Sérpa, Ngủ-ná in Magar.
Tat in Kúmi, Ngún-gé in Khyeng.

Move, Walk.-Dyú in Lhópa.

Kyú in Burmese.

Run.-Chóng in Sérpa, Lóyá in Kiránti.

Chó-né in Khyeng, Lei in Kúmi.

Give. Bin in Bhotia and Lhópa, Pí in Limbú, Pai in Kiránti, Pen in Gúrúng.

Pé in Burmese, Pé gé in Khyeng, Pei in Kúmi.

(Ná pú in Kami = Náng in Bhotia, asks for self.) Take.-Yá in Bhotia, Lyo in Lepcha, Lé in Limbú. Yú in Burmese, Lá in Kámi, Ló in Kúmi.

Kill. Thód in Gúrúng, That in Bódó.

That in Burmese.

Hear, attend.-Nyen in Bhotia and Lhópa and Lepcha, Nyo in Newári.

Né in Khyeng, Ka-ná-i in Kámi.

Remark, the materials for the above striking comparative view are derived from my own original vocabularies for the Northern tongues, as published in the Journal, No. 185, for December 1847, and from Captain Phayre's for the Southern tongues, hereto appended.

It is seldom that vocabularies so trustworthy can be had, and had in series, for comparison; and yet it is abundantly

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