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banks of the Tamór, to which the winding of the road again brings you. Quitting the Tár you advance a quarter of a kós to the Rasua Khóla, which forded, you proceed along the base of the Télia ridge for one and a quarter kós to another Tirbéni and place of pilgrimage, where the Cherwa and Telia rivers join the Tamór at Cherwa Ghát. A great fair is annually held at Cherwa, to which traders go even from Kathmándú. Thence proceeding a quarter kós, you reach the halting-place or, Bhainsia Tár. The Tár may be half a kós wide and one kós long; it is very hot and malarious, and is inhabited by the Manjhi tribe.
19th Stage to Lakshmipúr, E.N.E., 5 kós.
5 A quarter kós of slight ascent brings you to the Nawa Khóla, a moderate-sized stream, which is ascended for three kós by a very bad road that crosses the bouldery bed of the river many times. Thence quitting the Khóla, you commence the severe ascent of Lakshmi-chúria, which is climbed incessantly till you reach the halting-place near the hill top. Lakshmipúr is a large and flourishing village of Limbús, where men and goods abound, and the climate is fine and the water cold—a great relief after the burning Társ recently traversed.
20th Stage to Ithang, East, 3 kós. After a slight descent of one and a half kós, you come to Pokharia Khóla, a small stream, which is at once crossed. Thence a slight ascent of one kós up the ridge of Nangi, along the top of which another half kós brings you to the haltingplace, which is a Khas village of large size.
21st Stage to Khándráng, East, 4 kós. A slight ascent of a quarter kós to the village of Múléi, inhabited by Khas. Thence a great descent of one kós to Kokalia Biási, or the Magpie's Glen, which is watered by the Dóé-mai, a small stream. Cross it, and ascend the ridge of Timkyá a short way, and then skirting along its waist (mánjh) for one and a quarter kós come to the Léwá Khóla, another of the innumerable streamlets of the hills. Cross it, and proceed for one and a half kós along the base of the ridge of Khándráng to the village of the same name, which is the halting-place and a small village of Brahmans.
22d Stage to Ilám, East, 5 kós. Descend the Khándráng ridge for half a kós, and come to a small stream called the Ratia Khóla. Cross it, and then make a severe ascent of one kós up to the ridge of Gólákharak, whence Karphók, the great ridge dividing Nepál from Sikim, is visible. Thence an equally difficult descent of one kós to the llám Khóla, a small stream. Thence, crossing the stream, make the severe ascent of Tilkiáni ridge for one and a quarter kós. Thence skirt along the side of the hill (mánjh) for one kós to the halting-place of Nám, which is a small fort designed to guard the eastern frontier of Népál. The Chatelain is a captain, and has a hundred soldiers under him, with eight artillerymen and one cannon of small calibre. This officer is also the civil authority of the arrondissement, and raises the extraordinary revenues thereof to meet the local expenses, sending the balance, if any, to Kathmándú. The land revenue is wholly assigned to his troops in pay.
23d Stage to Godkak, East, 2 kós. After a steep descent of ope kós you.come to the Jógmai or Mai River, a small stream, which passed, you commence the steep ascent of Gódhak, and continue ascending to the haltingplace, which is a small village of Brahmans, half-way up the hill.
24th Stage to Siddhi, N.E., 3 kós. . Detained much by rain to-day and yesterday, and therefore made short marches. Leaving Gódhak, ascended by a very bad road, loaded with dense vegetation, for one and a quarter kós to Karphók-chouki, a frontier Górkhali post, where eight soldiers always reside. Thence one kós along the ridge or Lekh to Súddúng, which is but another name for the ridge. Thence a slight descent of one kós to the Siddhi Khóla, a small stream, on the banks of which we halted on account of the rain.
25th Stage to the English Chouki, N.E., 73 kós. Crossed the Siddhi stream, and proceeded one and a half kós of slight ascent and skirting the mountain bases to Thaplia. Thence half a kós of descent to the small streamlet of Séchideu. Thence a quarter kós over low hills to the Méchi River. The Méchi is the present boundary of Népal and Sikim. It is a small stream which rises in the Singalélah ridge, a spur of Karphók. Crossed it and ascended the hill of Nágri, by a very bad road and severe ascent of one and a quarter kós to the top.
a Thence a severe ascent of one kós to the smaller Rangbhang Khóla, a streamlet merely. Thence along the glen to the great Rangbhang, distant one kós. Thence a steep ascent of one kós to Nágri Kót, an old fort in ruins. Thence a painful descent of half a kós to the Balason River. It is a moderate-sized stream, larger than the Méchi. Thence half a kós of rather uneven travelling to the halting-place.
26th Stage to Darjeeling, North, 4 kós. A severe ascent of one kós, and then an easy half kós along a ridge, brought us to the Company's high-road, along which we travelled for two and a half kós to Jellapahár and Herbert Hill at Darjeeling.
Total kós 109.
NOTE.—The Népálese standard kós is equal to 25 English miles, and the travellers had this standard to refer to along a great part of their way, as being coincident generally with the measured military road several times adverted to on the route. Hence their distances from stage to stage may be perfectly relied on, though in the details of each stage the same accuracy cannot be expected.
Tirbéni. At Dúmjá, which is only a few miles south of Dallálghát, the Sún Cósi receives a considerable affluent from the west. This affluent is called the Rósi. It rises on the external skirts of the great valley under the names Biyabar and Panouti, from the respective dales watered by the two streamlets.
3d. The Támba Cósi. It rises at Phallák in the snowy region, about two journeys east and a little north of Kálingchok, or the fount of the upper and pseudo Sún Cósi. The Támba Cósi's course from Phallák to Sélaghát, where it falls into the receptacle, is nearly south, and, as far as I know, it has only one considerable affluent, which is the Khimti. The Khimti rises in the Jiri ridge, and flowing nearly south, parallel to the Támba Cósi, joins the latter in its mid-course at Chisapáni.
4th. The Likhú. This river is less than the Támba Cósi, and seems to rise somewhat beneath the snows, though its place of origin at Khali Mungali is said to be a ridge connected therewith. Its course is still more directly south than that of the Támba Cósi, to which, however, its general direction is very parallel. I know but one of its feeders, the Kháni, which comes from the Cháplú ridge on the east of the main river. 5th. The Dúd Cósi. It is a large stream, larger even than
. the Támba Cósi, though inferior to the Arún or Támor. It rises amid the perpetual snows, but at what exact spot I do not know, and it has a southern course to the Sún Cósi at Rasua. Its feeders are numerous, but I know only those near Rasua, which are the Thotia and the Sisnia on the west and the Rao on the east.
6th. The Arún or Arún Cósi. It is the largest by much of the whole, and consequently the main source of the Mahá Cósi, having several feeders in Tibet, one from Darra on the north, another from Tingri on the west, and the third from the east from a lake. The Arún is not only the greatest of the Cósis, but of all the sub-Himálayan rivers, if the Karnáli be not its equal. None other can compete with it. The Barún, often reckoned a separate Cósi, is a mere feeder of the Arún, and joins it so high up that there is little propriety in admitting the Bárún as a member of the Sapt Cósi. The Bárún is lost in