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No. of stages.

88 |Túngpá lúng

eight
89 |Pá tháng

eight
go Pá cúng

three and a half
91 Tá só

nine
92 Tsáng på

seven and a half
93 Láma ya

twelve
94 Tháng-thúng

ten
95 Lí than

five
96 Khwongtakhá
97 Kumo-li

twelve
98 Máuai túng

nine
99 Khó khou

four
100 W6 lési

nine and a half
101 Tángwá li

seven
102 Anyáng ya

five
103 Chéchain-to

nine
104 Táchindó or Tázi-dot four
I05 Thou-tháng-sung five and a half
IoLuting chúng

eight
IOT Phí syáng

ten
108 Ní thyáng
109 Chhya chhú-syang

eight
110 Pai-phou

seven
111 Lúch'yáng syang four and a half
112 Yá-tou

ten
113 Pai-táná

nine
114 Chi-tou

eight
115 Syáng chang-shen eight
116 Chhin-púl

nino

four
two
one
three
three
three
four
two
three
four
two
three
two
three
seven
two
six
three
five
five
seven
twelve
thirty-

nine
(cross-

ings) fourteen

117 Sidhu sya

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ono

none

fourteen

none

16-30
16-30

six

ton 1940 nono

none forty- none forty. two seren

seven 119 Lyochang-syang five

9-0 one

none nine none pine

ono
120 Myáng tou

seven
15-0 nono

two six none six

one 121 Chathúng syang twelve

17-0 two

two
fourteen
one

three one
122 U-liang-i

eight
16-0 one

Done
two
none
two

none
123 Chẩả táng

nino

1750 two

none four none four

one 124 Tású sú

eleven

23-0 two

one six none seven

none 125 Kwa ya syang

ten 21-0 one

one three one two

two 126 Syásyú-yan-i

twelve 28-0 two

none
one
none
two

one
127 Khwáng pa-i

six
120 two
none three none

one

none 128 Nichi-tou

five

10-0 two

none
one
none
none

one
129 Tá gnái
nine

one

none three none

none

none
130 Myá syang
nine

none

none three none

one

one
13 Páú tráng

eight
12-0 none

Dono four nope one

nono 132 Mátá wei

ten 18-0 one none three none

two

none 133 Tályó-pá

pine 16-0 three

none

none
seven

one
134 Lángsyáng

nine
15-0 one

none
seven
none
seven

none
135 Phrasyang

nine

16-0
one

none
seven
none
seven

one
136 Khwá nyou-phú

eleven
20-0 none

none
six
none
four

nono
137 Pau ching syang ten

18-0 two

none nine nono

thirteen one 138 Phráng-syang-phra nine

17-0 none

two four none

three one 139 Chhi syang syan six

10-0 nono

one three nope

three one
140 U kúm syang

twelve
21-0 none

four four

none three

two IẢI SỬángphrengsyang nine

15-0 none

four
one
none

one
I42 Sing-ha-phú

ten
19-0 none

two
two
none
two

two
143 Lét-nang-shan

six
13-0 none

two
four
none
four

one
144 Pai-lán-syan

eight
19-0 none

two four pone

three one 145 Khwáng my

twelve

25-0 none eleven fifteen none

fourteen three I46 Pháng thon ten

ten

230 none

two five none two

two 147 Lyangpyáng-syán ten

23-0 none

none two none two

four 148 Sá-tou

six II-0 none

one
five
none
two

two
149 I'-pang-syí

seven
14-0 none

none three none

three three 150 Myá-thung-syang seven

13-0 one

none seven pone six

one * Figure for eight perhaps a cypher.

+ Boundary of Tibet and China Proper. See Diary of a Cashmerian journeying on the route thus far in our Researches. Khám extends from Sangwa or 51st

These and the next two noted are crossings of one mountain-locked river, not separate rivers. The fourteen of stage 121 is another instance of the same kind.

118 Tayang

stage to this point,

two

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nine
20-0 none

one
fourteen none twenty- one

two I52 Khó lyáng syáng seven

13-0 none

none seven none

seven

one
153 Múng syang

nine
20-0 none

three two

one
one

one
I54 Phai-chhen phú

six
13-0 none

one four none

four

one 155 Yé khwá-i [syang seven

13-0 none

none six

none six

one
I56 Khwokhou-chang-

ten
21-0 none

two (two five

none four two I57 Wei-khai-phú

twelve

18-0 none twenty- four

none four two 158 Chhi syang

six 12-0 none

four five none four

three six 120 none

two six none five

one IẾo Tá-tai-phú

seven 3-0 none

two seven none six

two 161 Sa-tou

seven 13-0 none

none three

none three one 162 Kháng-tang-gyang seven

13-0 none

Done six none six

one 163 1Súng-tou-phú

twelve
12-0 none

one
seven
none

seven two
164 Lói chhi-syang

six II-O none

none

three none three 165 Pai-syáng-syang

12-0 none

none two none two

one
166 Twá-tou

six
II-O none

one
four
none four

one 167 Lou thyáng-syang four and a half

7-30 none

two

three none three one 168 Dyang-dyang-phủ six and a half 13-0 none

one three

none three one
169 Shito-syang

nine
18-0 none
none three none

three

one
170 Chhipú syang

nine
2040 none

two two

none two

one I7 Phá khú-syáng

seven 16-O none

two two

none
two

one
I72 Pou tyạn phú

one
II-O none

one

three none three one
173 Pai-khó

eleven
20-0 none

six eight none eight none
174 Tá-tou

eight

16-0 none seven six

none
six

one
I75 Lóng syán
eight and a half 18-0 nono

none five
none

two
176 Pai-chin (Pekin)

seven

16-O none

none
five
none
six

three
176
176
1267 (1268) 2576

102 (106)

652
23

100
REMARKS.- The above paper, like that which accompanies it, is deserving of implicit reliance, from the circumstances under which it
was prepared and transcribed for me. The kós, according to which the computation of distance is made throughout, is that of Népál, equal
to 24 miles; and the time in ghadis and pals is the same, according to which 60 pals make a ghndi and 2) ghadis an hour. The embassy set
out on 7th of Asár (June) and arrived at Pekin on 12th of Mágh (January), halting forty-seven days, which are included.

In the fifth column of the original, the names of the passes (langur in Khas and lá in Tibetan) are not given. I have, however, set down in brackets such as I was enabled to procure before I left Nópál.

SECTION XI.

ROUTE FROM KÁTHMÁNDÚ, THE CAPITAL OF NÉPÁL,

TO DARJEELING IN SIKIM,

INTERSPERSED WITH REMARKS ON THE PEOPLE AND

COUNTRY.

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a

First Stage to Choukót, East, 71 kós. PROCEEDING vid Mángal, which is within a quarter of a mile of the city, we came to Nangsál, at the like distance from Mángal. Both are petty suburban Néwár villages. Thence to Deopátan, distance three-quarters of a kós, a large pakka village inhabited by Newárs. Thence to Thémi, one and a quarter kós. Thémi is a considerable pakka town of Néwárs, and is famous for its pottery. Thence to Bhátgáon, distant one kós. Bhátgáon is a large handsome Néwár town situated near the Eastern end of the valley of Népál, and is said to contain 12,000 houses. Its palace, temples, and tanks are very striking structures. Thence to Sángá, two kós. This bridge-like place stands on a low ridge separating the great valley of Népál Propert from the subordinate valley of Banépa. It is a small place, but the houses are all pakka, as usual with the Néwárs. Thence to Banepa, one kós. Banepa is a small pakka town inhabited by Néwárs, and situated in the vale of the same name. Thence to Khanarpú, one kós. It is a nice little Néwár village, situated near the point where the dales of Banépa and Panouti blend with each other. Thence to Choukót, a quarter kós, ascending a low ridge and quitting the level country thus far traversed, and all of which is highly cultivated, yielding autumn crops of rice and spring ones of wheat.

* Pakka here means built of burnt bricks. This word and its correlative kachcha are most convenient terms, for which I know no English equivalents.

+ The valley of Népál is about sixteen miles in either diameter, of shape between oval and lozenge, cultivated throughout, and yields two crops per annum, a spring one of wheat and an autumn one of rice. It is very densely peopled with a population of probably 350,000 souls, distributed in three principal and many subordinate towns, all of burnt brick and tiled roof, in the tent style of architecture so prevalent in China. Equidistant from snows and plains, elevation 4500. Centrally placed with reference to the length (E. and W.) and breadth (N. and S.) of the kingdom. For its people see on to p. 196 infra.

Compare note at exordium of vol. on Buddhism, and separate paper therein on Sambu Puran, (Essays I., 115), notices of Valley and Tersi of Nepalya Kallyana in Benga's A. S. Journal.

2nd Stage to Kalápáni, East, 6 kós. Ascend the large ridge of Batásia and come to the mountain village of Phúlbári, which is somewhat less than one kós from Kálápáni. Thence along the ridge two and a quarter kós to Syámpáti, another small village of Parbattias. Thence to Saláncho, one kós. Saláncho is a third small hill village, and it overlooks the glen of Kashi Khand on the left. Thence to Kánpúr, a Parbattia village, close to which is the halting-place, at a tank called Kálápáni, distant from Mithya Kót one and a quarter kós.

3rd Stage to Jhángá-jhóli, South-East, 63 kós. This stage runs along the same ridge of Batásia. But it is here called Ténnál. Half a kós to the hill village of Bhoatia, and another half a kós to that of Gimti, both inhabited by Múrmis. Thence half a kós to Pokri, another similar village of Múrmis. Thence to Cháp Khár, about three-quarters of a kós, a fourth Múrmi village. Thence to Gárchá, another hamlet of Múrmis, distant from the last rather less than two kós: a quarter kós more brings one to the descent into the Biási or vale of Dúmja, on the banks of the Rósi and Sún Cósi. The Biási is low, hot, and malarious, but fertile in rice, triangular in shape, and about a mile in greatest width. The Bar, Pipal, Sémal, and Khair trees * grow here, and large Dhanéses (Buceros Homrai) are seen eating the fruit of the Pipal. The Sún Cósi at Dúmja flows freely over a wide bed of sand, and is about

* The occurrence of the Indian figs, cotton-tree, and acacia, so far within the mountains, shows that the Biásis, wherever situated, have a tropical climate. See

on,

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