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No. of passes

Position of the mountain passes, with the names

of some of them.

Distance in kós.

(called lan

gúrs.)

a

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or

At a nameless spot
On this side of Pátháng
At Tásó
At Sámbáthúm
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At Lámáyá
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
Beyond Litháng
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
At Góló
On this side of Táchindo Tazhideu

or Tazedo
At the military post of Khwálechin
On this side of Chhinchisyán (Sháin or

Syán = mountain in Chinese)
At a nameless spot

Thus far the mountain-ridges passed
are generally large. Henceforward they
are small.
At a nameless spot
On this side of Yáto
On this side of Paitán
Beyond Thinda phú and Khato
On this side of Lochángsyan
On this side of Mingtou
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
On this side of Chatou
On this side of Ulingnái
At a nameless spot
On this side of Chantou
At a nameless spot

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* The iron bridge beyond Táchindó is the boundary of Tibet and China. See Diary of a Journey from Kathmándú to Táchindó, printed in our Rescarches.

No. of passes

Position of the mountain passes with the names

of some of them.

Distance in kós.

(called lan

gúrs.)

one

one

one

one

one

one one one one one one

At a nameless spot
On this side of Gamsú
At a nameless spot
On this side of Kwangsyán
Beyond Kwángsyán
On this side of Saichháng
At Saichháng
Beyond Saich hàng
At a nameless spot
At a nameless spot
On this side of Nichhángtoá
On this side of Tángákú
Beyond Mínsyán
Beyond Poáthinsyan
Beyond Lúpasyán
On this side of Phúngsyán
On this side of Pouchingsyán

Not carriageable thus far. Hencefor-
ward carriages may be used. *
At Chhálúng
At Singhásyán

[Distance of both, as cited below

one
three
six
three
six
four
two
five
three
two
seven
six
three
sixteen
nine
twelve
nineteen

one

one

one

one

one

one

one

one

caret
caret
353]

104

1 205 Thus there are 104 langurs or mountain ridges and passes between Káthmándú and Pekin, and of these 102 occur in the non-carriageable part of the way or in the first 897 kós, and the last two only in the remaining 353 kós or the carriageable part. This latter may be said to be entirely through plains, for of the two hills occurring, only one is at all noticeable, and both are traversed in carriages. From Kathmándú to the iron boundary-bridge beyond Táchindó (China frontier) is 665 kós; and thence to Chinchi Shán or Mount Chinchi is 20 kós. Throughout these limits, or 685 kós from Kathmándú, mountains covered with snow occur. In the remaining 565 no snowy mountains occur.

Horses are used for the first 894 [query 897], and carriages for the last 356 [query 353]. Total, 1250 kós.

* This remark, as well as the prior one in the body of the paper, belongs to the original. The bracketed entry of distance is mine, taken from the remarks below of the original.

Systematic Summary of the Roule from Kathmándú to Pekin, as traversed by the Népálese Ambassador to China, Káji
Dalbhanjan Pándé, A.D. 1822-23, and set down by his Secretary at the close of each day's journey.
Time in

Lakes
Distance in kós. ghadis and Mountain ridges or

Rivers or
Halting place.

river-
ferries.

Bridges. Forts. pals.

tanks. crossings.

one two none two

none 2 Sánkhú

none
two
none
none

none
3 Devápúr

four
15-0 one
none three none

three none
4 Sípá
three and a half II-0 one

none
two
none
none

none Chuutrá

none one none one

none 6 Pairya

three none three none Thama gaon

none none none none

none 8 Lísti two and a half 13-0 one

none
two
none four

none
9 Tuguna
two and a half 10-0 nono

none
one
none
one

none
five
19-0 none

none five

none
four

none
II Chósyáng

five
21-0 none
none three none

seven

none 12 Kúti

none three none

three none
Is Thácheling

three none three none
14
Thó-lúng

none
three
none
none

none 15 Tigri langkot

ten 20-0 one (Bhairav langur none two

none
none

none
16 Tigri or Tingri
three
none or Thang lá)t none

one
none
one

one
17
Mimo

two
one
none
none

none
18 Shékar jeung

two
none
two

one
19 Lólah

one
none
none

none
20 Chyáchópé or Gyáchópé four and a half II-O one Thólá).

none
one
none
none

none
2I | Tháng bú

nine
1740 one (Dhángso8 thóulá) two two

none
two

one
22 Lalit jéung

none
two
none
none

one
23 Chya táng
four and a half 12-0 none

none
none
none
none

one
* Boundary of Népal and Tibet since 1792.

Blaírav langúr is the name in the Khas language. Thánglá, in full Nyánám thánglá, in that of Tibet. These names of the mountain-ridges crossing
the route are not in the original, but obtained by me from other sources and therefore bracketed. This famous pass, the heights above which and consti-
tuting with the pass one immense snow mass, which mass is equivalent to the Mount Everest of Waugh, commences (see Chountra paper) 3 kós beyond
Tholung, or 55 kos from Kathmándú, 50 by the Chountra's more direct route.

§ This ridge and the three above it are all very small, and none of them of course snowed. The first or Khyumri is situated between the towns of Shekar and Sekya. Time in Distance in kós. ghadis and

[graphic]

and ranges crossed.

No. of stages.

Io Khásá *

1 Gourighát

one 1-5 none

three
9-0 none

four
10-0 one

four
13-0 one

none

five
17-0 none

four
17-0 none

five
15-0 none

none

four
12-0 none

six
13-0 none

six 15-0 one (Khyumrila) two

three

840
one (Gyachila) none

five
II-0 none

* Thólá = Cholá or Tasya chólá of Chountra's paper.

୨୦

pals.

[blocks in formation]

12-30
940
II-30
16 O
5-30
17-O
14--0
II-O
13–0
I10
II-0

noue

snowy) none
none (Chhunglá not none
one (Khyongla)

none
none

none
none

none
one (Jiklá)

none
none

none
none

one
none

one
none

none
one (Chapla) +

none

one
one
one
one
none
one
none
one
one
four
two

none
none
none
none
none

one
none
one
none
one
two
three
one

none
one
one
nono
one
one
none
none

a

none
none

[blocks in formation]

eight and a half
30 Ták chwe

seven
31 Gyáng chi or Gyang-tse five and a half
32 Kú-nashi or Geb zés
33 Thúng toï or Ralung five and a half
34 Nícháng-u or dzara five
35 Nágaklú jéung or Nan- five (Yamdó
gache

lake on right)
36 | Pai khu jeung or Pedié six (Yáru
37 Gná ksá or Khampa par- six (cross the
38 Chusum jeung

five and a half
44 Usú chóng or Usirgyang five
45 Toïta

five and a half
Sáng-wá ||

six and a half

No. of stages.

Halting place.

29 Péná

seven

24 Phencholing

five
25 Tási gang

four
26 Girí

five
27 Káti gumba

nine
28 Digarcha * or Zhikatse three

(chu six 39 | Gne táng

nine
40 Lhasa

six
41 Tai-chhin

six
42 Mito gúnga

thirteen
43 | Ringché láng

five
46 Nú gári or Nú mári nine
47 Sú súng tá

nine
48 | Chyáng táng

six
49 Ling ta

six
50 Syáng-tá

five
52 |ó-cha

eight
53 | Lá thí

five 54 |Tá-tung-khá

six 55 | Tuva-thúng

seven 56 Chya-kúng

one
one
pone
none
none
one
none

none
none
none
one
none

none

none

none
none
none
one
none
none
none

two
one
none
two
three
three
one
three
three
four
five
one

none

IO-O
II-O
12-0
12-30
17-0
14-0
14-0
24-0
11-30
100
10-0
1740
17-0
II-O
11-30
10-0
II-O
15-0
II-O
II-O
16-0
13-0

one
none
none

one
none
none
none
one

two
one
none
one
one
two
none
two
two
four
five
seven
five
two
five
three
two
five
one
two
none
three

one
one
one
one
two
one
ono
one
one
none
none
none
none
none
none
one
none
one

one (Gyámda thólá) s two

none

six

none
none
none
none

a

one (Thónda lá)

none
none
none
none
five
five
none
none
two

none
none
none
noue
none
one
none
none
none
none

two
five
three
two
none
two
four
two
two

[blocks in formation]

one
none
none
none

nono

none

five

[blocks in formation]

57 Walá-to

eight
58 Gáwo
59 Láchi-cho

five
60 T6-tá

eleven
Pyáng-pá

seven
62 | Lá chá

five and a half
63 Páli láng

twelve
64 Lócha pángwo

thirteen
65 Tha-tho

seven
66 Lilibú-jéung

nine
67 Chyai chhou

nine
68 Máli

five
69 | Wá khó

four
70 Goángta tár

sixteen
71 Lá kung

five
72 | Là kata

eight
73 | Tháng dú or Cham-do eight
74 Mú phú or Mung thu віх
75 Pow tyáng
76 | Pá kúng or Ba-gung

nino
77 | Wáng khá

five
78 | Gnang ti or Gam seven and a half
79 | Táy,

eight
8o |Ló cháng chúng

six
8 | Ang sá or Azú

nino
82 Sépang kow or Néwa six
83 Lí sú or Risyú

ten
84 Mang khám or Cháng eleven
85 Kúsú

[kha eight
86 Mángali
Khanchi khá

three

17-0
12-0
II-O
19-0
13-0
II-O
16-0
19-0
I2-0
17-0
1740
II-O

90
24-0
940
13-0
12-0
12-0
II-O
17-30
II-O
13–0
21-0
12--0
26–0
II-O
1740
23-0
17-0
18- o
6-0

nono
one (Syar kang 14)
none (Nup háng lá)
one
one
one
one (Serak lá)
two (Nak lá)
none
one (Gabu lá)
one (Gámu lá)
five
one (Yutakh lá)
five
none
one (Syánam cholá)
none
two
two
one
non
none
one
none
two
one
three
one
one
two
one

one
one
one
none
none
none
none
none
OLO
one
four
none
none
none
one
none
two
none
one
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none

four
three
none
two
seven
two
one
three
two
one
two
none
one
four
two
two
three
one
one
none
one
two
one
two
one
one
one
one
two
two
none

nono
none
none
none
none
none
none
uone
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none

six
four
uone
four
four
three
one
one
three
none
three
none
one
two
two
eight
two
two
one
none
none
two
two
two
none
none
none
none
two
none
none

nono
none
nono
none
nono
none
nono
ono
none
one
nono
none
none
none
none
none
none
nono
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none

six

nine

87

* Zhi-kha-chhén of Néwári, capital of province of Tsáng = zhi-ká-tsé of Tibetan and Digarcha of Klias. | The Sikim Raja's Vakil suggests Khárulá or Nyunzying Khangzan, a great snowy range.

The Tsamding monastery is situated here.

& Gyamda thol and the seven next-named mountains are said to be vast masses of perpetual snow. True of Gyamda thola and Syarkangla and Nhup Kangla (kangla = snowy mountain or pass), but not of the three intervening lá. The pass of Gyamdatho is very fatal to travellers. Recent viva voce information.

|| Sángwá is on the border of the provinces of U and Khám. From Gnaksa to Sángwá is the jurisdiction of Lhása. The full name of Sángwá is Kwomyogyamda-sángwa.

None of the above with the simple addition lá, instead of Kangla, are snowy

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