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English.

Toda.

Badaga.

Kota.

Kurumba.

Irula.

avale posso
adu posso

We

am

I cause to love
I have found no, &c. madisine

kesiken
madisutine

ná pria pannisige
I love

pá pria panni kan.

dirige I strike *burthtsbini huidane *puikape huiyutine

ná adikallave, ná

adida vittige Thou strikest burthtsti

huidere ni puikape *huiyuti

ni adika He strikes burthtsti huidana avane puikapo huiyutane

ava adika She strikes burthtsti huidla

huiyutale

ayla adika
It strikes
burtutsti
huidada

huiyutade

adu adika
We two strike. Dual is the same as plural; adding only the numeral two after the pronoun instead of ella

= all
Dual

all strike. ellam burthts- angella huidaneo lámella puiyame angella huiyuteve namella adikemet
Inclusive

bimi We all strike. ellam burthts. yengella huidaneo

emella puiyame
yengella huiyuteve

The same
Exclusive

bimi
Ye all strike nivellam burthtsti

ningella huidari
nimella pórasire
nivella huiyutiri

nimella adikiri They all strike avarellam burtutsti avarella huidara

avarella huiyutare avarella adikaru A dog noi

nai

áed
Two dogs. Dual ked noi

yeradu nai

nai
yede
yeradu nai

rendu nai
Dogs. Plural
(1) No plural
naigla
|(1) No plural. (See naigalu

No plural for neu.
remarks.)

ters
A father
eiyan

eiyane
tande

amma, am-ma caused

by euphony from

ang-pa, my father
Twofathers. Dual It is wanting

It is wanting
It is wanting
It is wanting

It is wanting
Fathers. Plural It is wanting

It is wanting
it wanting
It is wanting

It is wanting
A father. Indef.

No such distinction exists in any of these languages
The father. Def.
* For omitted Pronouns, sec elsewhere. + Dual is not a separate form, but rendu = 2, is added after pronoun instead of ella, as Nam rendal adikeme, &c.

em

avarella posso

nai

nai

nai

appa, tande

}

yen eiyane

nana tande nina tande

ninna appa

nin eiyane

}

amma

{

}

avla appa
aduna appa

avan eiyano
aval eiyane
adun eiyane
ema eiyane
ama eiyane
nimud eiyane
avara eiyane
ane
yen
yennade
yenge
emu
amu

yenna appa Thy father nin eiyan His father

#vana tan eiyan

appa

ava
Her father tan eiyan
Its father

yenga appa
father Inol.
am eiyan

anga appa Your father nim eiyan

ninga appa
Their father avar eiyan

avara appa
an, anu

nánu, na
My
yen, yendu

yenna
Mine
yendu, yennadu

yennadu
We
em, am

yengla
Exclu.
Our
yem, yemdu

yenga
Inclu.
am, amdu

anga
Exclu. yemdu, yemmadu
Ours

yengadu
Inclu.
amdu, ammadu

angadu, nammadu
Thou
pi

ni Thy nin, nindu

ninna Thine

nindu, ninnadu pinnadu Ye nív

níng'a nim, nimdu

ninga Yours

nimdu, nimmadu nin- ningadu

ava, avla, adu
His

Common avana
Her

aval gender avala, avla

tan

aduna
His
Dis.

avandu Common avanadu

avaldu gender avladu

adundu adundu adunada They avar

avaka Their avar, avardu

avara, avakara Theirs

avardu, avaradu avaradu, avakaradu

avana tande
avala tande
adara tande
yenga tande
nama tande
nima tande
avara tande
nanu, ná
nana
nanadu
yenga
yenda
nama
yengadu
namadu
ni
nina
ninadu
ninga
nima
nimadu, ningadu

yenud amma
ninud
ninod
avanud amma
avalud amma
aduna amma
yemmud amma, for

both
nimmud amma
avarud amina
ná, nánu
yennudu, yennud
yennádu
navui
yemmudu, or yem-

mud, for both
yemmadu, for both
ni
ninud, nina
ninnádu
nív
nimmud
nimmádu, ningadu

sinadu} nangude {

, niye
nin
ninnade
ninge
nimudu
nimadu, ningudo

I Ego

My father yen eiyan

tan eiyan
Our Excl.) em eiyan

gadu
He, she, it
avan, aval, adu

avan
Con-

junc. Its

adun

junc. Its

Your

Hers

avane, avale, ade
avana
avale
aduna
avanade
avalade
adunade
avare
avare
avarade

avanu, avalu, adu
avana
avala
adara
avanadu
avaladu
adaradu
avaru
avara
avaradu

ava, avla, adu
avanud
avalud
aduna
avanadu
avaladu
adunadu
aduru
avarud
avaradu

Corrections by the Rev. B. Schmid, in the Malabarwords of the Ceylonese Vocabularies.

:

ORIGINAL.
Akayam
Irat-tham
Pasú
Kákam. Kakkei
Naul

{ Kágam. Kakei.

Thenam, Malabar
Dina, Singalese

{ } [These are merely the Gilchristian and Jonesian representations of vowels.-B. H. H.]

CORRECTION.
A gáyam. X'gáam : the y merely intercalary.
Irattam. Rattam : the i servile Sanscrit rak tam.
Pású. Both syllables short : accent not = long vowel or syllable. It often falls on a short syllable.

Kakkei, which is the English mode of lengthening the a by making the accent coincide

with it, could not be understood. Nál. Naul would be pronounced Nowl on the continent of Europe, and would mislead. These words, seemingly so different, are identical, the difference resulting merely from bad pronunciation

and a bad spelling. Singalese (and Sauscrit) d is expressed in the Madras Presidency generally by th, but quite erroneously, and European foreigners might suppose this th = the English th, whereas in all the world only Todas and Danes have the English th. Even the Greek theta O is not quite the same. [I

doubt the implied Arian etymology. Dina vel thina = day and to-day, is thoroughly Turánian.-B. H. H.]
Tagappen. [Hard h = k vel g, throughout the Turánian area.-B. H. H.]
Tandei.

T = d, and aspiration neutral, are characteristically Turánian, and so also a hard nasal
Tatei.

sound followed by t rather than by d.]
Pú.
Min.
Dáâga Canarese Diasa and Latin Dies. [Query. W, like y, is an intercalary consonant, used normally to

separate vowels.-B. H. H.]
Irátir.
Natchétiram = Sanscrit Nakshatra. The native word is ván min = fishes of the sky, for stars. (In Newari
the stars are called forest or jungle of the sky.-B. H. H.]

Better Krámam. The separation of the coalescing consonants being a mere trick of Támil.
Kerámam

[Such separation is nevertheless normally Dravidian.-B. H. H.]
Adı. [Ah' is merely the abrupt accent separating the root a and the servile du ve thu.-B. H. H.]
Ningal." (U for n is a misprint merely.-B. H. H.]
Avargal. [Gal = kal, plural sign. But gal is better after a liquid. – B. H. H.]
Avar. [Misprint merely.-B. H. H.]
Ennudéyadu. Enadu. And so also read Avanudéyadu and erase Avarudeyadu, which is the
Ummudéyadı. Umadu. plural.
Avarudéyadu, just cited. In the neuter, avattin.

Tahappen
Thanthei. Thathei
Poo
Meen
Dawasa Singalese
Irattiri
Natchetheram

{

Keramam
Al'-thu
Ningal
Averkal
Avei
Ennudeyathu. Enathu
Ummadžathu. Umathu
Oné

}

Inthu
Pat-thu
Sympathu
Idat-thu
Nettu
Inga. Angol
Engei
Kéiói
Met-tha
Ethukkuka
His. That
Moschito
Which. Jón. H.
Which. Tón, H.
Net-thirei
Alukei
Iru
Konduvá
Eduttupódu
Vadamaduthal
Oduthal

}

Eindu.

[I never use the diphthong ei so common in European writing of Dravidian tongues. Pattu.

With me é makes ai, and á, au, and ó, ou. I never confound these two latter. The
Eimpattu.

sliding French u I present in the form of eu, or in combination with a precedent conso-
Idattu.

nant in the form of yú, thus English puling and tune I write pyúling and tyún. The
Nétu.

French j and u as seen in jeu d'esprit are among the commonest and most characteristic
Ingé. Angé.

cf Turánian sounds. I write them separately, z and eu, united zyú.-B. H. H.)
Engé.
Külé. Long German dotted ü, or Freuch ú.
Metta.
Edukkagu.

These are slips of the pen in the English column. The latter is inferred from the
This. That.
Moustachio.

Malabar terms.
The Hindi and Urdu relative and correlative are wholly unknown in Támil. Whatever is put down, there-

fore, must be incorrect.
Túngu.
Alu.
Ulukkáru. Iru means literally be, but is often used for sit. But ulukkáru is the proper word for sit down.
These are compounds from the verbs come and go, and mean taking come and taking go.
Nada. Thal suffix means the doing ; maduthal in Canarese = to do. Nada and odu are quite enough for
Odu. walk and run.

}

} Nittirei and Alukei (rather Alugei) are substantival forms = the sleeping and the weeping.

}

=

}

REMARKS.—I give the above as they reached me without entirely assenting to the value set on such precision by the venerable author of these corrections, or always even approving the corrections, for the more ample and careful becomes our survey of the Turánian tongues, the more deep is the conviction that the largest commutability of consonants and vowels is normal in this family of tongues, that local varieties of utterance are not to be reduced to a quasi-exotic standard, and that Akayam and Keramam, for instance, reflecting as they do the well-known preference of Tamil for surds and its aversion to heaped consonants, may very reasonably be preferred to Agayam and Kramam. Mr. Schmid's conjecture that the English th is known only to the Todas is incorrect, for the Burmese and Kúkis, as well as some Himalayan and Sifanese tongues, have the sound ; and likewise the Todava proneness to blend the sounds of s, z, and the English th, and the latter also with d, like the Támulians of the Eastern Coast. My Ceylonese papers were prepared for me by a gentleman who used the ordinary English way of representing Oriental words. I myself always use the Continental, but the other does not mislead me. The Nilgirian vocabularies are framed on the latter model. The cerebral letters are indicated by an italic letter, thus, t, d, l; ch is to be pronounced as in English much ; ch with the mark 7 above, as in Gaelic loch ; and in Toda th is always to be sounded the English way.-B. H. H.

[graphic]

ON THE ABORIGINES OF SOUTHERN INDIA

AND CEYLON.

a

To the Secretaries of the Asiatic Sociсty.

GENTLEMEN,—In prosecution of the steps already taken by me, and recorded in our Journal, for obtaining ready and effective means of comparing the affinities of all the various aboriginal races tenanting the whole continent of India, I have now the honour to submit a comparative vocabulary of seven of the Southern tongues. Five of them belong to the cultivated class of these tongues, viz., Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Carnataka, Tulava; and two to the uncultivated class, viz., Curgi and Todava. The former are given both in the ancient and modern form, and care has been taken to procure the genuine vocables instead of those words of Sanscrit origin which are now so apt to be substituted for them, especially in intercourse with Europeans.

I am indebted for these vocabularies to Mr. Walter Elliot of Madras, whose name is a sufficient warrant for their perfect accuracy.

In regard to these cultivated tongues of the south, Mr. Elliot observes that the aptitude of the people at present to substitute prákritic words for aboriginal ones is such a stumbling-block in the search for affinities as it requires pains and knowledge to avoid ; and he instances (among others) the common use of the borrowed word rakta, for blood, in lieu of the native te rm néthar, by which latter alone we are enabled to trace the unquestionable ethnic relationship of the Gónds (even those north of the Vindhia) with the remote southerns speaking Telugu, Cannadi, and Tulava.

On the subject of the local limits and mutual influence at the present day of the cultivated languages of the south upon each other, Mr. Elliot has the following remarks :-“All the Southern dialects become considerably intermixed as they approach each other's limits. Thus the three words for egg used indifferently by the people speaking Canarese (matté, tetti, gadda), are evidently obtained, the first from the Tamulian,

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