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vernaculars of the so-called Arian class of tongues in the plains—traces, I conceive, of primitive Turánianism as palpable as are to be found in the secondary terms (bhat-wat, mar-dal (vide infra), kapra-latta, &c.) of the Prákrits, and which their grammarians can only explain by calling them tautological sing-song. That all such terms are really genuine samples of the double words so common throughout the Turánian area, and that the latter member of each term is Turánian, I trust by and by to have time to show. Meanwhile, and with reference to the Tartar substitute for the voices, here are a few examples

By me struck = I struck, active voice.

Tibetan, ngági dung; Newari, jing dáye; Háyu, gia tohmi; Khas, mailé kútyo; Urdu, main né kúta.

Me struck = I was struck, passive voice.

Tibetan, ngála dúng; Newári, jita dála; Háyu, go toh'mi; Khas, manlai kútyo; Urdu, mujh ko kúta (subaudi, usnė).

The languages which employ conjunct suffix pronouns have a form precisely equivalent to the latter, e.g., Sontál dál-éng, and Háyu toh'-múm = struck me. And observe that Sontál dál, to strike, reproduces not only the widespread dá vel tá root of the north, but also the l of Newári dála,* as to which see remarks on the transitive and preterite sign aforegone, and Urdu már-dál, with its comment.

With regard to the personal endings or pronominal suffixes of the Nilgirian verbs, their obscurity is sufficiently conformable to the cultivated Dravirian models, with due allowance for mistakes on the part of the rude speakers of the former tongues. Something may also be ascribed with probability to decomposition and disuetude. But upon the whole we cannot doubt that these tongues belong to the pronomenalised class, and that, for example, the ni and mi of Toda tinsbi-ni, I eat;

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Observe also that Jita dála reproduces the objective sign, ta vel da, above spoken of. Compare latada and Cicero t. As a transitive sign of verbs it is most widely diffused, and nearly as widely are ka vel ga, and pa, vel ba, vel va. Sa vel cha is a very widely diffused neuter sign which also can be traced indubitably to the third pronoun used to denote the object—in this case, the agent himself or itself. The French forms, Je lève and Je me lève, &c., very well serve to indicate the latter form, though not the former of Turávian verbs.

tinsbi-mi, we eat; with the an, al, ad of nidre-madut-an, madutal, madut-ad, he, she, it sleeps, of Kurumba, are instances of suffixed pronouns. And now, having already remarked sufficiently upon the other peculiarities of the Nilgiri pronouns under the head of “pronoun," I shall here bring these remarks, suggested by the Nilgirian vocabularies, to a close.

P.S.-Of the many resembling or identical words in the Himalayan and Dravidian tongues I say nothing at present. Those who meanwhile wish to see them, have only to consult the several vocabularies printed in the Journal.

But with reference to what I have stated above, that there exists an authentic tradition (reduced to writing some five hundred years back) identifying the people of the Malabar coast with those of

épál proper (or the Newár tribe), I may just point to such words as wá vel vá = come, and sumaka silent, as perfectly the same in form and meaning both in the Newár language and in that of the Nilgirians.

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SUPPLEMENT TO THE NILGIRIAN VOCABULARIES.

VOL II.

tenna tinnu tinnu tinnu

tinnave, tinduko (the

latter to a superior) únú kudi úne kudi

kudidukove, kudidu

koveko vorg voragu vorage (g = German gnidre madu (sleep kadandukove, kadan.

make)*

duko
vorigadi, yecharichagirt yecharagiru (awake be) yecharike iru (awake be) yecharikeagiru (awake nenevá girave

be)
négé
kárje
nage

girkádu
atthti
lau (au = ou)
áge (g = German g) alu

aluve
nudi (u = 00)
mánivo
matádu, nudi

pesu
bokir
sumagiru, japaniru pakiru

symaniru (silent be) maniade iru (speech

less be) itva ? vá (it-va = come ba, iti ba ? (iti-ba váge

ba

barave
here)

come here)
atfo? fo (at-fo = go hógu, ate hógu ? (ate athóge? hóge (at hóge hógu

bhó there)

hogu = go there) = go there) mklo lyettu méke yeddu

yéndu kove
neshkir (be down) kuli
kúkiru (be down) kutukó

ukandu kove
at nar? nar (at nar = nade, ate nade? (ate nade

nade

nadandu kove walk there)

walk there) vór vódu ate vódu vóda

vódu ta, kor ta, kodu ta kodu

tárave tegi, yettfo (having tegi

véde
tegi

bóngu
taken go)
burv
hui
puiye
hui

adi

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Strike

* The brackets denote suggestions of my own. + Ch= kh. English ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.

146

kondu bóku tavarsidade

adidukove, kondu

kove
túku

túku

túkove
atvei (vei: at-vei
Put down

ate idu
háku, idu, atebi (ate vei

bhodu
put there)

kelu
kte, voratiru (hearing vóruttulle
Hear

kétukove
be)
Understand aridir
aridiru, aridutto arsulle

ariduko

arindiru
eshtt

helu
parrde

sollu
bury
Strike

adi

hui
burthtati

huiya béda
puiyade

adio-venda To strike

adia
puikede

huiya
Striking

adika
burthtp

huiyuva
burtht' (used actively huida

huida

adida
as well as passively,

Burthtpavan, or burtht- huiyuvavanu (van or puikálu
The striker, or

adikálu

huiyuvara
He who strikes pál (= striking man) vanu is masculine puikálu

huiyuva álu

adika
suffix, and ál or álu
= man is equivalent.
The two forms, there-

huiyuva álu
Having stricken burthtudd
huidu, huidundu possutte

hui du gondu

adidu burthtsbini, or burth-huidane I strike

áne puikape

ná adi kallave

5) huiyutine versbini

huide áne possupe

ná adide

huide
I will strike No future

Present tense is used Present tense is used Present tense is used ná adike * Ch=kh. English ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.

Esh-t is absolutely the samo with Váyu ish-to, the t being the transitive sign! And moreover in Toda, as in Háyu, this is active and passive ! Soo burth-t = stricken,

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or

ná voragine, vora- voragape, inde 5) nidre madutine Iná kadandu kóge giunnane

3) voragape, ornér vidre madide (sleep ná kadandu kónde
voragape

made 1)
I will sleep
No futuret
ná voragine
voragape, or nalke Present tense.

pá kadavdu kóge

tingape
tinnutine

ná tindu kóge
I ate
No preterite
tinde
tidde
tinde

ná tinde
I will eat
No future t
4) tinnane
tingape
Present tense.

ná tinge
I see
noţthbini, kadders- nodine

kandane, kanutine ná pátu kóge
bivi
I saw
No preterite t
nodide
nósipe
kande

ná pátu kónde
The future is the same as the present tense in all these tongues
vorchsbini
voragine
voragape

| nidre madutine (sleep ná kada ke, na ka-
made I)

dandu kóge Thou sleepest *vorchsti * voragire voragape nidre maduti

ni kadandu kónde He sleeps vorchsti voragina

avanu kadandu Voragapo nidre madutane

kónda

avla kadandu
She sleeps vorchsti

voragla
voriglo
nidre madutale

avala kondala
It sleeps
vorchsti
voragida
vorigo

nidre madutade adu kadandu kónda
We two sleep

No dual in any of these languages
We all sleep. amellam vorchsbini angella voragineo amella vorigame navella nidre madu.
Inclusive

teve
We
all sleep. emellam vorchsbini yengella voragineo emella vorigame

yengella nidre madu.

These have been
Exclusive

teve

casually omitted Ye all sleep nivellam vorchsbini mingella voragiari * vorigire

nivella nidra Dadu.

by Mr. Metz.

tiri They all sleep avarellam vorchsbini vakaella voragiari vorigoro

avarella nidre madu.

tare
I cause to kill I have found no form koddhákisine

kondhakisutine ná kollisé vittige
for this
I cause to make

madisutine

(About the Passive, see Remarks.) * For omitted Pronouns, see elsewhere. + Adverbs of timo used to mark tense. I sleep yesterday = I slept. I

I sleep to-morrow = I will sleep.

I slept

I will see
I sleep

I sleep an vorchebini

voragape No preterite ná voragidde

voragapet I eat tetthbini, tinsbini tinnane

nósigape

tavarsiken

madisine kesiken

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