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vernaculars of the so-called Arian class of tongues in the plains—traces, I conceive, of primitive Turánianism as palpable as are to be found in the secondary terms (bhat-wat, mar-dal (vide infra), kapra-latta, &c.) of the Prákrits, and which their grammarians can only explain by calling them tautological sing-song. That all such terms are really genuine samples of the double words so common throughout the Turánian area, and that the latter member of each term is Turánian, I trust by and by to have time to show. Meanwhile, and with reference to the Tartar substitute for the voices, here are a few examples
By me struck = I struck, active voice.
Tibetan, ngági dung; Newari, jing dáye; Háyu, gia tohmi; Khas, mailé kútyo; Urdu, main né kúta.
Me struck = I was struck, passive voice.
Tibetan, ngála dúng; Newári, jita dála; Háyu, go toh'mi; Khas, manlai kútyo; Urdu, mujh ko kúta (subaudi, usnė).
The languages which employ conjunct suffix pronouns have a form precisely equivalent to the latter, e.g., Sontál dál-éng, and Háyu toh'-múm = struck me. And observe that Sontál dál, to strike, reproduces not only the widespread dá vel tá root of the north, but also the l of Newári dála,* as to which see remarks on the transitive and preterite sign aforegone, and Urdu már-dál, with its comment.
With regard to the personal endings or pronominal suffixes of the Nilgirian verbs, their obscurity is sufficiently conformable to the cultivated Dravirian models, with due allowance for mistakes on the part of the rude speakers of the former tongues. Something may also be ascribed with probability to decomposition and disuetude. But upon the whole we cannot doubt that these tongues belong to the pronomenalised class, and that, for example, the ni and mi of Toda tinsbi-ni, I eat;
Observe also that Jita dála reproduces the objective sign, ta vel da, above spoken of. Compare latada and Cicero t. As a transitive sign of verbs it is most widely diffused, and nearly as widely are ka vel ga, and pa, vel ba, vel va. Sa vel cha is a very widely diffused neuter sign which also can be traced indubitably to the third pronoun used to denote the object—in this case, the agent himself or itself. The French forms, Je lève and Je me lève, &c., very well serve to indicate the latter form, though not the former of Turávian verbs.
tinsbi-mi, we eat; with the an, al, ad of nidre-madut-an, madutal, madut-ad, he, she, it sleeps, of Kurumba, are instances of suffixed pronouns. And now, having already remarked sufficiently upon the other peculiarities of the Nilgiri pronouns under the head of “pronoun," I shall here bring these remarks, suggested by the Nilgirian vocabularies, to a close.
P.S.-Of the many resembling or identical words in the Himalayan and Dravidian tongues I say nothing at present. Those who meanwhile wish to see them, have only to consult the several vocabularies printed in the Journal.
But with reference to what I have stated above, that there exists an authentic tradition (reduced to writing some five hundred years back) identifying the people of the Malabar coast with those of
épál proper (or the Newár tribe), I may just point to such words as wá vel vá = come, and sumaka silent, as perfectly the same in form and meaning both in the Newár language and in that of the Nilgirians.
SUPPLEMENT TO THE NILGIRIAN VOCABULARIES.
tenna tinnu tinnu tinnu
tinnave, tinduko (the
latter to a superior) únú kudi úne kudi
koveko vorg voragu vorage (g = German gnidre madu (sleep kadandukove, kadan.
symaniru (silent be) maniade iru (speech
less be) itva ? vá (it-va = come ba, iti ba ? (iti-ba váge
hogu = go there) = go there) mklo lyettu méke yeddu
nadandu kove walk there)
walk there) vór vódu ate vódu vóda
vódu ta, kor ta, kodu ta kodu
tárave tegi, yettfo (having tegi
* The brackets denote suggestions of my own. + Ch= kh. English ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.
kondu bóku tavarsidade
adio-venda To strike
Burthtpavan, or burtht- huiyuvavanu (van or puikálu
hui du gondu
adidu burthtsbini, or burth-huidane I strike
ná adi kallave
5) huiyutine versbini
huide áne possupe
Present tense is used Present tense is used Present tense is used ná adike * Ch=kh. English ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.
Esh-t is absolutely the samo with Váyu ish-to, the t being the transitive sign! And moreover in Toda, as in Háyu, this is active and passive ! Soo burth-t = stricken,
ná voragine, vora- voragape, inde 5) nidre madutine Iná kadandu kóge giunnane
3) voragape, ornér vidre madide (sleep ná kadandu kónde
pá kadavdu kóge
ná tindu kóge
kandane, kanutine ná pátu kóge
ná pátu kónde
| nidre madutine (sleep ná kada ke, na ka-
dandu kóge Thou sleepest *vorchsti * voragire voragape nidre maduti
ni kadandu kónde He sleeps vorchsti voragina
avanu kadandu Voragapo nidre madutane
nidre madutade adu kadandu kónda
No dual in any of these languages
yengella nidre madu.
These have been
casually omitted Ye all sleep nivellam vorchsbini mingella voragiari * vorigire
nivella nidra Dadu.
by Mr. Metz.
tiri They all sleep avarellam vorchsbini vakaella voragiari vorigoro
avarella nidre madu.
kondhakisutine ná kollisé vittige
(About the Passive, see Remarks.) * For omitted Pronouns, see elsewhere. + Adverbs of timo used to mark tense. I sleep yesterday = I slept. I
I sleep to-morrow = I will sleep.
I will see
I sleep an vorchebini
voragape No preterite ná voragidde
voragapet I eat tetthbini, tinsbini tinnane