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1 Sam. 1.10.

b See Job 29. 15, 16.

no more.

8 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are

11Sam. 19. appointed to destruction.


Esth. 4.16.

6 Heb. the sons of destruction. * Lev.19.15. Deut. 1.16. 1 Job 29.12. Is. 1. 17. Jer. 22.16. m ch. 12. 4. &-18. 22. & 19. 14.

▲ Rom. 12. 11.

o Luke 12. 42.

6 Heb. taketh.


cir. 977.


9 Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy.

10 T m Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.

11 The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.

12 She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.

13 She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands. 14 She is like the merchants' ships; she bringeth her food from afar.

15 "She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens.

16 She considereth a field, and "buyeth it with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard.

17 She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms.

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of a virtuous woman.

18 2 She perceiveth that her merchandise is good: her candle goeth not out by night.

BEFORE CHRIST cir. 1015.

2 Heb. She

19 She layeth her hands to the tasteth. spindle, and her hands hold the distaff.

20 P She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy.

21 She is not afraid of the snow for her household: for all her household are clothed with 'scarlet.

22 She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple.

Heb. She spreadeth. P Eph. 4. 28. Heb. 13.16.

4 Or, double garments.

23 Her husband is known in the a ch. 12. 4. gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the land.

24 She maketh fine linen, and selleth it; and delivereth girdles unto the merchant.

25 Strength and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come.

26 She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness.

27 She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness.

28 Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her.



29 Many daughters have done 5 Or, have virtuously, but thou excellest them all. 30 Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain: but a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised.

31 Give her of the fruit of her

hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates.




5 The sun also ariseth, and the

CHRIST 1 The preacher sheweth that all human courses sun goeth down, and hasteth to his are vain: 4 because the creatures are rest-place where he arose. less in their courses, 9 they bring forth nothing new, and all old things are forgotten, 12 and because he hath found it so in the

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BEFORE CHRIST cir. 977. Ps. 19. 5,6. 6 Heb.

panteth. John 3.8.

h Job 38. 10 PB. 104. 8, 9.

7 Heb. return to go.

8 All things are full of labour; man cannot utter it: the eye is not sa-1 Prov. 27. tisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled 20. with hearing.

9 The thing that hath been, itch. 3. 15.

The vanity of pleasure.


1 ver. 1.


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11 There is no remembrance of former things; neither shall there be any remembrance of things that are to come with those that shall come after.

12 T'I the Preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem.

13 And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under Gen. 3,19. heaven: m this sore travail hath God ch. 3. 10. given to the sons of man to be ex2 Or, to aflict them. ercised therewith.

a ch. 7. 13. 8 Heb. defect.

14 I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit.

15 That which is crooked cannot be made straight: and that which is wanting cannot be numbered.

16 I communed with mine own heart, saying, Lo, I am come to great 1 Kings 3. estate, and have gotten more wisdom than all they that have been before me in Jerusalem: yea, my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.

12, 13. & 4. 30.&10.7,23. ch. 2. 9.

4 Heb. had seen much.

p ch. 2.3, 12.
& 7. 23, 25.
1 Thess. 5.

q ch. 12. 12.


b Is. 50. 11.

• Prov. 14. 18.

oh. 7.6.

4 ch. 1. 17. 6 Heb. to draw my flesh with wine.

• Heb. the number of the days of their life.

17 PAnd I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit.

Wisdom excelleth folly.

chards, and I planted trees in them
of all kind of fruits:

6 I made me pools of water, to
water therewith the wood that bring-
eth forth trees:



of my house.

7 I got me servants and maidens, and had servants born in my house; Heb. Fons also I had great possessions of great and small cattle above all that were in Jerusalem before me:

8 I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.

9 So I was great, and increased more than all that were before me in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me.

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18 For 4 in much wisdom is much 13 Then I saw that wisdom exgrief: and he that increaseth know- celleth folly, as far as light excelleth ledge increaseth sorrow.

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14 The wise man's eyes are in his
head; but the fool walketh in dark-
ness: and I myself perceived also that
one event happeneth to them all.
15 Then said I in my heart, As it
happeneth to the fool, so it happen-
eth even to me; and why was I then
more wise? Then I said in my heart,

I will prove thee with mirth, that this also is vanity.

therefore enjoy pleasure: and, be-
hold, this also is vanity.


2 I said of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What doeth it?

3d I sought in mine heart to give myself unto wine, yet acquainting mine heart with wisdom; and to lay hold on folly, till I might see what was that good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.

4 I made me great works; I builded me houses; I planted me vineyards: 5 I made me gardens and or

16 For there is no remembrance of the wise more than of the fool for ever; seeing that which now is in the days to come shall all be forgotten. And how dieth the wise man? as the fool.

17 Therefore I hated life; because the work that is wrought under the sun is grievous unto me: for all is vanity and vexation of spirit.

18 Yea, I hated all my labour which I had taken under the sun : because I should leave it unto the man that shall be after me.

ch. 1.17. &

those things which have been al

ready done. Heb. that

there is an excellency in wisdom

more than in folly, e.

* Prov. 17.

ch. 8. 1.

1 Ps. 49. 10

ch. 9. 2,3,

6 Heb.

happenth to me."

to me, even

7 Heb.
m Ps. 49. 10.

A season for


cir. 977.

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sew; d
a time to keep silence, and a
time to speak;

19 And who knoweth whether he
shall be a wise man or a fool? yet
shall he have rule over all my labour 8 A time to love, and a time to
wherein I have laboured, and where-hate; a time of war, and a time of
in I have shewed myself wise under
the sun. This is also vanity.

20 Therefore I went about to cause my heart to despair of all the labour which I took under the


21 For there is a man whose labour is in wisdom, and in knowledge, and in equity; yet to a man that hath Heb. give: not laboured therein shall he 2 leave it for his portion. This also is vanity and a great evil.

a ch. 1. 3. & 8.9.

• Job 5.7. & 14. 1.

pch. 3.12,13,
22. & 5.18.
& 8. 15.

22 For what hath man of all his labour, and of the vexation of his heart, wherein he hath laboured under the sun?

23 For all his days are sorrows, and his travail grief; yea, his heart taketh not rest in the night. This is also vanity.

24 TP There is nothing better for a man, than that he should eat and Or, delight drink, and that he should make his soul enjoy good in his labour. This also I saw, that it was from the hand of God.

his senses.

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a ver. 17. ch. 8. 6.

6 Heb.

to bear.

b Heb.9.27.

25 For who can eat, or who else can hasten hereunto, more than I?

26 For God giveth to a man that
is good in his sight wisdom, and
knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner
he giveth travail, to gather and to
heap up, that he may give to him
that is good before God. This also
is vanity and vexation of spirit.

1 By the necessary change of times, vanity is
added to human travail. il There is an ex-
cellency in God's works. 16 But as for man,
God shall judge his works there, and here
he shall be like a beast.



dAmos 5.13. •Luke14.26.

9'What profit hath he that work-fch. 1. 3. eth in that wherein he laboureth?

10 I have seen the travail, which 8 ch. 1. 18. God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.

11 He hath made every thing beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that ch. 8. 17, God maketh from the beginning to the end.

Rom. 11.33.

I ver. 22.

12 I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do good in his life. 13 And also that every man should ch. 2. 24. eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God.

14 I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever: nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: and God doeth it, that men should fear before him..

15 m That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.

16 T And moreover " I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness, that iniquity was there.


17 I said in mine heart, God shall
judge the righteous and the wicked:
for there is Pa time there for every
and for every work.
18 I said in mine heart concerning
the estate of the sons of men,
God might manifest them, and that
they might see that they themselves

To every thing there is a season, are beasts.

and a time to every purpose under the heaven:

2 A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;

3 A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up;

4 A time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance;

5 A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; a time to embrace, and a time to Heb. to be refrain from embracing;

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19 For that which befalleth the Ps. 49. 12. sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity.

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r Gen. 3. 19.

20 All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again. 21 Who knoweth the spirit of ch. 12.7. man that goeth upward, and the the sons of spirit of the beast that goeth down-man. ward to the earth?

22 Wherefore I perceive that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?

4 Heb. of

6 Heb. is ascending.

ever. 12. 5. 18. & 11.9.

ch. 2. 24. &

a ch.2.10.

x ch. 6. 12. & 8.7.& 10.14

The increase of vanity.


cir. 977.

a ch. 3. 16. 5.8.

2 Heb. hand.

b Job 3.17, &c.

• Job 3. 11, 16, 21. ch. 6. 3.

3 Heb. all the rightness of work.

4 Heb. this is the envy of a man from his neighbour. d Prov.6.10. & 24. 33.

e Prov. 15. 16.17.&16.8.

? Prov. 27. 20.



Abuses in divine service.


1 Vanity is increased unto men by oppression, 1 Vanities in divine service, 8 in murmuring 4 by envy, 5 by idleness, 7 by covetousness, 9 by solitariness, 13 by wilfulness.

S the suppressions that are done I returned, and considered all

under the sun: and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power; but they had no comforter.

2 b Wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive.


3 Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.

4 Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for this a man is envied of his neighbour. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

5 The fool foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own flesh.

6 Better is an handful with quietness, than both the hands full with travail and vexation of spirit.

7 Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun.

8 There is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye 1 John 2.16. satisfied with riches; & neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yea, it is a sore travail.

g Ps. 39. 6.

5 Heb. who knoweth not to be admonished.

9 Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour.

10 For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.

11 Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone?

12 And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken. 13 Better is a poor and a wise child than an old and foolish king, 5 who will no more be admonished.

14 For out of prison he cometh to reign; whereas also he that is born in his kingdom becometh poor.

15 I considered all the living which walk under the sun, with the second child that shall stand up in his stead. 16 There is no end of all the people, even of all that have been before them: they also that come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and vexation of spirit.

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4. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for he hath no pleasure in fools: "pay that which thou hast vowed.

5 Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay.

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25. Acts 5. 4.


6 Suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin; neither say thou 1 Cor. 11. before the angel, that it was an error: wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thine hands?

7 For in the multitude of dreams and many words there are also divers vanities: but 'fear thou God.

8 If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for he that is higher than the highest regardeth; and there be higher than they.

9 Moreover the profit of the earth is for all: the king himself is served by the field.

10 He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he that loveth abundance with increase: this is also vanity.

11 When goods increase, they are increased that eat them: and what good is there to the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them with their eyes?

12 The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, whether he eat little or much: but the abundance of the rich will not suffer him to sleep.

13 m There is a sore evil which I have seen under the sun, namely, riches kept for the owners thereof to their hurt.

14 But those riches perish by evil travail: and he begetteth a son, and there is nothing in his hand.

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Vanity of riches.


⚫ch. 1. 3. p Prov. 11. 29.

q PB. 127.2.

r ch. 2. 24. & 3. 12, 13, 22. & 9.7.

& 11.9.

1 Tim. 6.17.

? Heb.

there is a good

which is comely, &c.

8 Heb. the number of

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mother's womb, naked shall he re-than the wandering of the desire:
turn to go as he came, and shall take this is also vanity and vexation of
nothing of his labour, which he may spirit.
carry away in his hand.

16 And this also is a sore evil, that in all points as he came, so shall he go: and what profit hath he Pthat hath laboured for the wind?

17 All his days also a he eateth in darkness, and he hath much sorrow and wrath with his sickness.

18 Behold that which I have seen it is good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy the good of all his labour that he taketh under the sun all the days of his life, which God giveth him: for it is his portion.


19 Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and

10 That which hath been is named already, and it is known that it is man: neither may he contend with him that is mightier than he.

11 ¶ Seeing there be many things that increase vanity, what is man the better?



the walking of the soul. Job 9.32.

2 Heb. than

Is. 45.9.
Jer. 49.19.

Heb. the

number of the days of the life of

his vanity. Ps. 102. 11. & 144. 4.

& 109. 23.

12 For who knoweth what is good for man in this life, all the days of his vain life which he spendeth as ha shadow? for who can tell a man what shall be after him under the sun? ch. 8.7.

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GOOD is better

the day. & hath given him power to eat thereof, Acious ointment, and the day of

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3 ¶ If a man beget an hundred children, and live many years, so that the days of his years be many, and his soul be not filled with good, and d also that he have no burial; I say, that an untimely birth is better than he.

4 For he cometh in with vanity, and departeth in darkness, and his name shall be covered with darkness.

5 Moreover he hath not seen the sun, nor known any thing: this hath more rest than the other.

6 ¶ Yea, though he live a thousand years twice told, yet hath he seen no good: do not all go to one place? 7 All the labour of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.

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death than the day of one's birth.

2¶ It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his heart.

Jam. 4. 14. i Ps. 39. 6.


& 22.1.

3 'Sorrow is better than laughter: Or, Anger. for by the sadness of the countenance b2 Cor.7.10. the heart is made better.

4 The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning; but the heart of


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7 Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad; and a gift destroy-Deut. 16.19. eth the heart.

8 Better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof; and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit.

9 Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry: for anger resteth in the bosom of fools.

10 Say not thou, What is the cause that the former days were better than these? for thou dost not enquire wisely concerning this.

11 Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to them that see the sun.

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