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a hill,

Venitian blinds; and between this and the head the macebearers of the Governor stand. The Union Jack is hoisted at the head and stern of the boat, and the Company's flag in the centre. With oars it would go at a great rate; but the inferiority of paddles was now fairly proved, by the far more rapid progress of Captain Manning's boat, though quite as heavy, and with only ten rowers.

The Botanic Garden is a very beautiful and well-managed institution, enriched, besides the noblest trees and most beautiful plants of India, with a vast collection of exotics, chiefly collected by Dr. Wallich himself, in Nepaul, Pulo Penang, Sumatra, and Java, and increased by contributions from the Cape, Brazil, and many different parts of Africa. and America, as well as Australasia, and the South Sea Islands. It is not only a curious, but a picturesque and most beautiful scene, and more perfectly answers Milton's idea of Paradise, except that it is on a dead flat instead of than any thing which I ever saw. Among the exotics I noticed the nutmeg, a pretty tree, something like a myrtle, with a beautiful peach-like blossom, but too delicate for the winter even of Bengal, and therefore placed in the most sheltered situation, and carefully matted round. The Sagopalm is a tree of great singularity and beauty, and in a grove or avenue produces an effect of striking solemnity, not unlike that of Gothic architecture. There were some splendid South American creepers, some plantains from the Malayan, Archipelago, of vast size and great beauty; and, what excited a melancholy kind of interest, a little wretched oak, kept alive with difficulty under a sky and in a temperature so perpetually stimulating, which allowed it no repose, or time to shed its leaves and recruit its powers by hybernation. Some of the other trees, of which I had formed the greatest expectations, disappointed me, such as the pine of New Caledonia, which does not succeed here, at least the specimen which was shown me was weak looking and diminutive in comparison with the prints in Cook’s Voyage, the recollection of which is strongly imprinted on my mind, though I have not looked at them since I was a boy. Of the enormous size of the Adamsonia, a tree from the neighbourhood of Gambia and Senegal, I had heard much; the elephant of the vegetable creation! I was, however, disappointed. The tree is doubtless wonderful, and the rapidity of its growth is still more wonderful than its bulk; but it is neither particularly tall nor stately. Its bulk consists in an enormous enlargement of its circumference immediately above the roots, and for a comparatively small height up its stem, which rather resembles that disease of the leg which bears the elephant's


name than tallies with his majestic and well-proportioned, though somewhat unwieldly stature. Dr. Wallich has the management of another extensive public establishment at Titty-ghur, near Barrackpoor, of the same nature with this, but appropriated more to the introduction of useful plants into Bengal. He is himself a native of Denmark, but left his country young, and has devoted his life to natural history and botany in the east. His character and conversation are more than usually interesting; the first all frankness, friendliness, and ardent zeal for the service of science; the last enriched by a greater store of curious information relating to India and the neighbouring countries, than any which I have yet met with.

These different public establishments used to be all cultivated by the convicts in chains, of whom I have already spoken. In the Botanic Garden their labour is now supplied by peasants hired by the day or week, and the exchange is found cheap, as well as otherwise advantageous and agreeable: the labour of freemen here, as elsewhere, being infinitely cheaper than that of slaves.

During Lady Amherst's progress through the gardens, I observed, that besides her usual attendants of gilt-sticks and maces, two men with spears, also richly 'gilt, and two more with swords and bucklers, went before her. This custom is, so far as I have seen at present, confined to the Governor and his family; but I understand it used to be the case with most persons of condition in Calcutta.

To the north of the Botanical Garden, and separated from it by an extensive plantation of teak-trees, stands the new College founded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, under the management, and at the suggestion, of Bishop Middleton, in a beautiful situation, and the building, from a little distance, beautiful also, in the Gothic of queen Elizabeth's time.

December 12.-I attended, together with a large proportion of the European Society of Calcutta, an examination of the Native Female Schools, instituted by Mrs. Wilson, and carried on by her together with her husband and the other Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society. The progress which the children as well as the grown pupils had made, was very creditable; and it may show how highly we ought to appreciate Mrs. Wilson's efforts, when I mention, that when she began her work there was no known instance of an Indian female having been instructed in reading, writing, or sewing; and that all those who knew most of the country, regarded her attempt to bring them together into schools as idle as any dream of



enthusiasm could be. * She is a sensible and amiable young woman, with patience and good temper sufficient to conquer most obstacles, and who has acquired an influence over these poor

little girls and their parents, as well as over her grown pupils, which at first sight seems little less than magical. It was very pretty to see the little swarthy children come forward to repeat their lessons, and show their work to Lady Amherst, blushing even through their dark complexions, with their muslin veils thrown carelessly round their slim half-naked figures, their black hair plaited, their foreheads speckled with white or red paint, and their heads, necks, wrists and ankles loaded with all the little finery they could beg or borrow for the occasion. Their parents make no objection to their learning the catechism, or being taught to read the Bible, provided nothing is done which can make them lose caste. And


of the Brahmins themselves, either finding the current of popular opinion too strongly in favour of the measures pursued for them to struggle with, or really influenced by the beauty of the lessons taught in Scripture, and the advantage of giving useful knowledge, and something like a moral sense to the lower ranks of their countrymen and countrywomen, appear to approve of Mrs. Wilson's plan, and attend the examination of her scholars. There is not even a semblance of opposition to the efforts which we are now making to enlighten the Hindoos; this I had some days ago an excellent opportunity of observing, in going round the schools supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge with Mr. Hawtayne, and seeing with how much apparent cordiality he was received, not only by the children themselves and the schoolmasters, though all Hindoos and Musselmans, but by the parents and the neighbouring householders of whatever religion.

On all these points, however, and on the great change which seems to be taking place in the character of this vast nation, or at least in the province of Bengal, I have written at considerable length to my friends in England, and therefore shall not repeat my opinions and observations here.

December 25.—This being Christmas-day I had a large congregation and a great number of communicants, I think above 500. Now, and at Easter-day, it is the custom in Calcutta to give very splendidly to the communion collection, which is the fund for the support of the European poor

* At the end of the year 1826, Mrs. Wilson had about 600 scholars in various schools in the suburbs of Calcutta, When the Central School is completed, these will all be concentrated. At the commencement of this experiment, Mrs. Wilson thought herself fortunate when she had obtained the attendance of six or severn children, -ED.



(for there are no poor's rates,) and is managed with great judgment and attention by a body of gentlemen, calling themselves the select vestry of the Cathedral. There is a good deal of distress among the Europeans and half-castes here, arising from various causes, especially from the multitude of speculations which have been tried of late years in Indigo and other establishments. If a man once begins falling so far as to borrow money, it is hardly possible for him to recover himself, the interest of loans is so high, and the necessary expenses of living so great, while a return to England, except in forma pauperis and at the Company's cost, is too expensive to be thought of by persons under such circumstances. Nor are they luxuries only that ruin the colo-, nists in Calcutta. House-rent is enormous, and though the poorer classes of Europeans and half-castes live in wretched dwellings, in very unwholesome parts of the town, they are often obliged to pay for these as much as would rent an excellent house in most of the market towns of England, and would furnish them with very tolerable dwellings even in London. Clothes, too, are dear. On the other hand, provisions, by those who will stoop so low, are to be had for al. most nothing from the remains

of the dinners of the princi. pal European families, which the climate will not suffer to be kept till another day, and are therefore disposed of by the Khânsamans at a very low rate indeed. Still there is much real want, and I apprehend that a man who gives as a Christian ought to give, will in Calcutta find little opportunity for saving, and still less for amusement and needless luxury. Deus faxit ut quod debeo absolvam!

My wife went a few days ago on a cruize to the Sandheads, for the benefit of our child's health.

Captain Manning joined his ship at Saugor at the same time, with a proniise that when he next returns here, he is again to become our guest. He is an excellent man, warm and single-hearted beyond most I know, of considerable talent in his profession and in mechanics, and of very pleasing unaffected manners. During the time he has been with us, I have had an opportunity of knowing his character thorough

and am very glad to be able to rank him among the n ber of my friends.

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On the 27th of December I paid a visit of two days to the Governor at Barrackpoor. I went by water early enough in the morning to preach to the congregation, which, for want of a church, assembles in the great hall of the government house, The distance is about 24 miles, which, with a favourable tide and a good set of rowers, may be ascended in two hours and a half, and descended in less than two hours. The river continues of nearly the same width as at Calcutta; its banks are covered with "fruit trees and villages, with many very handsome pagodas, of which buildings Calcutta only offers some small, mean, and neglected specimens. The general style of these buildings is, a large square court, sometimes merely surrounded by a low wall, with brick balustrades, plastered so as to resemble stone, or indented at the top, with two or sometimes four towers at the angles, generally, in the present day, of Grecian architecture, and ornamented with pilasters, balustrades, and friezes. In the centre of the principal front is, for the most part, an entrance resembling, in its general character and style of arrangement, the beautitiful Propylæum at Chester castle. When the pagoda adjoins the river, a noble flight of steps, the whole breadth of the portico, generally leads from the water to this entrance. Sometimes the whole court is surrounded by a number of square towers, detached by a small interval from each other, and looking not unlike tea-canisters, having such a propylæum as I have described in the centre of the principal front.

In the middle of the quadrangle, or at least in the middle of one of its sides, opposite to the main entrance, is the temple of the principal deity, sometimes octagonal, with pinnacles and buttresses, greatly resembling the Gothic Chapter IIouse, but in some instances, taller and larger, with three domes, one large in the centre, and a smaller at each side, with three gilded ornaments on the summit of each, extremely like the old churches in Russia. All these buildings are vaulted with brick, and the manner in which the Hindoos raise their square or oblong domes seems to me simple and ingenious, and applicable to many useful purposes.

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