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But all was,

The gardens, which we next visited, are not large, but in their way, must have been extremely rich and beautiful. They are full of very old orange and other fruit trees, with terraces and parterres on which many


were growing, and, even now, a few jonquils in flower. A channel of white marble for water, with little fountain-pipes of the same material, carved like roses, is carried here and there among these parterres, and at the end of the terrace is a beautiful octagonal pavilion, also of marble, lined with the same Mosaic flowers as in the room which I first saw, with a marble fountain in the centre, and a beautiful bath in a recess on one of its sides. The windows of this pavilion, which is raised to the height of the city wall, command a good view of Delhi and its neighbourhood. when we saw it, dirty, lonely, and wretched: the bath and fountain dry: the inlaid pavement hid with lumber and gardener's sweepings, and the walls stained with the dung of birds and bats.

We were then taken to the private mosque of the palace, an elegant little building, also of white marble, and exquisitely carved, but in the same state of neglect and dilapidation, with peepuls allowed to spring from its walls, the exterior gilding partially torn from its dome, and some of its doors coarsely blocked up with unplastered brick and mortar.

We went last to the 6 Dewanee aum," or hall of public audience, which is in the outer court, and where, on certain occasions, the great Mogul sate in state, to receive the compliments or petitions of his subjects. This also is a splendid pavilion of marble, not unlike the other hall of audience in form, but considerably larger, and open on three sides only; on the fourth is a black wall, covered with the same Mosaic work of flowers and leaves as I have described, and in the centre a throne, raised about ten feet from the ground, with a small platform of marble in front, where the vizier used to stand to hand up petitions to his master. Behind this throne are Mosaic paintings of birds, animals, and flowers, and in the centre, what decides the point of their being the work of Italian, or at least European artists, a small group of Orpheus playing to the beasts. This ball, when we saw it, was full of lumber of all descriptions, broken palanquins and empty boxes, and the throne so covered with pigeon's dung, that its ornaments were hardly discernible. How little did Shahjehan, the founder of these fine buildings, foresee what would be the fate of his descendants, or what his own would be! • Vanity of vanities !" was surely never written in more legible characters than on the dilapidated arcades of Delhi!

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After breakfast I had a numerous attendance of persons who either wished to be confirmed themselves, or to have my explanation of the nature and authority of the ceremony. In the afternoon I went with Mr. and Mrs. Elliott a drive round a part of the city. Its principal streets are really wide, handsome, and, for an Asiatic city, remarkably cleanly, and the shops in the bazars have a good appearance. The chief street, down which we drove, is called the "chandnee chokee,” or silversmith's street, but I did not see any great number of that trade resident there. It is about as wide as Pall. Mall, and has a branch of the aqueduct running along its centre. Half-way down its length is a pretty little mosque, with three gilt domes, on the porch of which, it is said, Nadar Shah sat from morning to evening to see the work of inassacre which his army inflicted on the wretched citizens. A. gate leading to a bazar near it retains the name of " coonia durwazu," slaughter-gate. The chandnee chokee conducted us to the gate of Lahore, and we went along the exterior of the town to the gate of Cashmere, by which we returned to the Residency. The city wall is lofty and handsome, but, excepting the ruins and sun-burnt rocks, there is nothing to be seen without the ramparts of Delhi. The Shelimar gardens, extolled in Lalla Rookh, are completely gone to decay. Yet I am assured by every body that the appearance of things in the province of Delhi is greatly improved since it came into our hands! To what a state must the Maharattas have reduced it!

January 1.-We went to see Koottab-sahib, a small town about twelve miles south-west of Delhi, remarkable for its ruins, and, among the Mussulmans, for its sanctity. It was the scene of very hard fighting between the Hindoo sovereigns of Indraput and the original Patan invaders, and the Mussulinans say that 5000 martyrs to their religion lie interred in the neighbourhood. Its principal sanctity, however, arises from the tomb of a very celebrated saint, Cutteeb Sahib, in whose honour the buildings for which it is now remarkable were begun, but never quite completed, by Shumshed, the third, I think, in succession of the Patan sovereigns. The emperor.

has house there, and it is a favourite retreat of his during fine weather.

We went out at the Agra gate, and rode through the same dismal field of tombs as we had formerly traversed, escorted by three of Skinner's horse. Before we had cleared the ruins, another body of fifteen or twenty wild-looking horse, some with long spears, some with matchlocks and matches lighted, galloped up from behind a large tomb; and their leader, dropping the point of his lance, said, that he was sent by Vol. I.


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the Raja of Bullumghur, " the fort of spears," to conduct me through his district. We had no need of this farther escort, but, as it was civilly intended, I of course took it civilly, and we went on together to a beautiful mausoleum, about five miles further, raised in honour of Sufter Jung, an ancestor of the King of Oude, who still keeps up his tomb and the garden round it in good repair. We did not stop here, however, but proceeded on elephants, which Mr. Elliott had stationed for us, leaving our horses under the care of the Bullumghur suwarrs, of whom, and their Raja, we were afterwards to see a good deal. Our route lay over a country still rocky and barren, and still sprinkled with tombs and ruins, till, on ascending a little eminence, we saw one of the most extensive and striking scenes of ruin which I have met with in any country. A very tolerable account of it is given in Hamilton's India, and I will only observe that the Cuttab Minar, the object of principal attraction, is really the finest tower I have ever seen, and must, when its spire was complete, have been still more beautiful. The remaining great arches of the principal mosque, with their granite pillars, covered with inscriptions in the florid Cufic character, are as fine, in their way, as any of the details of York Minster. In front of the principal of these great arches is a metal pillar, like that in Firoze Shah's castle, and several other remains of a Hindoo palace and temple, more ancient than the foundation of the Koottab, and which I should have thought striking, if they had not . been in such a neighbourhood. A multitude of ruined mosques, tombs, serais, &c. are packed close round, mostly in the Patan style of architecture, and some of them very fine. One, more particularly, on a hill, and surrounded by a wall with battlements and towers, struck me as peculiarly suited, by its solid and simple architecture, to its blended character, in itself very appropriate to the religion of Islam, of fortress, tomb, and temple. These Patans built like giants, and finished their work like jewellers. Yet the ornaments, florid as they are in their proper places, are never thrown away, or allowed to interfere with the general severe and solemn character of their edifices. The palace of the present imperial family is at some little distance behind these remains. It is a large but paltry building, in a bad style of Italian architecture, and with a public road actually leading through its courtyard. A little beyond, and amid some other small houses, near a very fine tank, we alighted at a rather pretty little building belonging to Bukshi Mahmoud Khan, the treasurer of the palace, where a room and a good breakfast were prepared for us.

After breakfast, the day being cool and rather cloudy, we

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went to see the ruins, and remained clambering about and drawing till near two o'clock. The stair-case within the great Minar is very good except the uppermost story of all, which is ruinous and difficult of access. I went up, however, and was rewarded by the very extensive view, from a height of two hundred and forty feet, of Delbi, the course of the Jumna for many miles, and the ruins of Toghlikabad, another giantly Patan foundation, which lay to the southwest.

We returned in the evening to Delhi, stopping by the way to see Sufter Jung's tomb. It is very richly inlaid with different kinds of marble, but has too much of the colour of potted meat to please me, particularly after seeing buildings like those of Koottab-sahib. We were received here, to my surprise, by the son of baboo Soobin Chund, who is, it seems, the agent of the King of Oude in Delhi, and consequently has the keeping of this place intrusted to him. He had actually brought a second and finer horse for my acceptance; and I had great difficulty in convincing him of two things: first, that I had no power to render him any service which could call for such presents; and secondly, that my declining his presents was not likely to diminish my good will towards him, supposing me to have such power. I succeeded at last, however, in silencing, if not convincing him, and we returned to the Residency, passing in our way by the Observatory, a pile of buildings much resembling those at Benares, and built by the same person, Jye Sing, Raja and founder of Jyepoor in Rajpootana.

At Mr. Elliott's we found his son, and the two Mr. Fishers, come to pass another Sunday with me. I also found two presents awaiting my acceptance; the one from the old Be. gum consisted of a garland of withered jonquils, intermixed with tinsel, which was, I believe, supposed to pass for pearls; for after putting the said wreath round my neck, the chobdars who brought it hailed me with an acclamation of “Ue Motee-wala!" **0, thou pearly person!" I however, had, of course, to receive the gift with many thanks as a favour from the hand of a princess. The other present, from the King; was more useful to a traveller, consisting of a buck, with his best wishes for my journey. The common deer of this neighbourhood are, indeed, by no means good, and may be had for a rupee a piece; but this had had some little feeding bestowed on it, and we found it by no means bad eating in our march.

of the present situation and character of this sovereign and his family, I had abundant opportunity of acquiring a knowledge, and I am glad to find that, with some exceptions,



the conduct of our countrymen to the house of Timour has been honourable and kind. My dear wife is probably aware that the first direct connexion between the English and the Emperor of Delhi began under Lord Clive's government, when Shah Aulum, father of the present Acbar Shah, yoluntarily, and without any stipulations, threw himself under our protection, as the only means of securing his personal liberty from the dissensions of his own subjects and the violence of the Maharattas. He was received and treated in all respects as a sovereign; had a residence assigned to him, with a very large revenue of twenty-six lacks a year; and this was, in fact, the only part of his life which can be regarded as splendid and prosperous. In his anxiety to return to Delhi, however, he, after some years, forfeited all these advantages, and threw himself into the power of the Maharattas, who, about a twelvemonth before, had gained possession of that city, and who were our inveterate enemies. By these new friends he was made prisoner; and Ghoolam Khadir, the Rohilla, who a few years after captured Delhi, put out his eyes, threw him into a dungeon, and murdered all the members of his family who could be found. His own life would probably have soon sunk under his misery, had not Ghoolam Khadir been defeated and put to death by Sindia, (assisted by French officers and troops,) who now, in his turn, obtained possession of his person. His condition was, however, very little improved. He was, indeed, suffered to live in his palace, and his surviving family re-assembled round him; but he and they were treated with exceeding neg. lect, and literally almost starved, by the avarice of Sindia and the rapacity of the French. It was during this period that most of the marble and inlaid ornaments of the palace were mutilated, since they were actually sold to buy bread for himself and his children.

In this miserable state he was found by Lord Lake, who restored him to the sort of decent dependence which his son now enjoys; addressing him on all public occasions in the style of a sovereign,-acknowledging the English Government his “fidoi," or feudatory,--and placing him, in fact, in every respect but revenue, where Lord Clive had placed him before. His revenue was fixed at ten lacks a year, which was afterwards increased to twelve, and by Lord Hastings to fifteen, a large sum, but which is said to be, either through mismanagement, or, as is greatly apprehended, the rapacity of the old Queen, who is busy making a purse for herself, barely sufficient for the wants of his very numerous family. By Lord Lake, Mr. Seeton, and Sir David Ochterlony, he and his son, the present Emperor, were treated

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