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examinations. The paragraphs and sentences to be translated being for the most part drawn out of examina'ion papers, the two publications will be found most practical. The rules are also written in that comprehensive spirit which characterises the questions asked in Examination papers.

III. Our grammar being divided into parts or years," into terms,” and “ lessons,cuts out the work for teacher and pupil in such a manner as to prevent the bad system of cramming on the eve of examinations and so as to considerably lighten the task and responsibility of the teacher. As there are but thirteen weeks in each term and ten lessons only in our book, three weeks in every term are intended to be devoted to recapitulation, and here the “Examiners ” will prove useful in ascertaining the progress made by the pupil.

IV. Instead of giving the pupil exercises made up of detached sentences, we give him, as soon as he knows the rules of construction, short paragraphs to translate into French. Teachers who pre pare

for examinations will recognise the value of such an innovation, as they must all have been disheartened, at some time or other, when they saw how little the most elementary rules of translation were remembered, when a short paragraph was given to be rendered into French, after the pupil had been translating detached sentences for years perhaps. Our principle is that as many rules as possible should regularly be brought under the pupil's notice, that his every day exercises should fit him for translating the extracts given in Examination papers. The rules are arranged with that end in view, and a very simple system of underlining words, and marking them with asterisks, is meant to bring back to the pupil's remembrance those which, by reason of their frequent application, ought never to be lost sight of. The rules having thus been placed in the order of their importance, we have not tried to bring them under certain headings as most grammars do : this would in our eyes have been sacrificing what is practical to a wrong idea of classification.

V. Perfect accuracy in the translation of our exercises, especially those given to the senior pupils, being almost impossible for any but for French-born teachers, we have divided our work in two parts —the Pupil's and the Master's book. The latter contains all that is in the former with the addition of (a.) A translation of the exercises printed in parallel columns

with the text. (6.) Exercises made up of disconnected sentences taken out of

Oxford and Cambridge Examination Papers, with the translation immediately following each sen

tence. (6.) Thirty interesting dictations for second year pupils to help

them to master French orthography. (d.) Some more directions for the master's use. Our Master's book is thus a great improvement on ordinary keys, since it is at once a guide, a grammar, and a key. It is meant to be used by all teachers.

VI. In addition to those important innovations we beg to men. tion here a few improvements on existing systems :

1. We have added, for the benefit of the Senior students, a résumé of the history of the French literature, which, complete and suggestive as it is, will help teachers to make the Senior course of study a really instructive and interesting one.

2. From 500 to 600 idiomatic expressions have been introduced in the 2nd part, and as carefully graduated as possible.

3. Our exercises from the twenty-first lesson-second yearupwards, being composed of short stories, complete in themselves, every-day conversations, extracts from daily papers; and in the fourth year of paragraphs given to the Oxford and Cambridge senior candidates, are varied and interesting, and will prevent the student from getting familiar with a few constructions only, to the prejudice of the spirit of the language, which can alone be found in diversity.

4. Vocabularies, which, according to the directions, are to be learned beforehand, will in the three first years save the pupil the trouble of using a dictionary; a previous oral translation of the junior exercises, 3rd year, is much recommended in order to facilitate the student's work at home and the master's corrections in class.

5. We have tried to settle the vexed question of the names to be given to the tenses ; after consulting Latin, English, and French grammars, together with the Examination Papers and several English teachers, we have decided on a new nomenclature, which, we hope, will put an end to the perfect chaos of denominations under which French and English verbs labour, and be understood by students of English and Latin as well as by French scholars.*

6. Acting on the kind suggestions of several subscribers to our papers, we have parsed a few sentences, and we confidently beg to give them as models to be followed in order to satisfy examiners in French.

7. Those rules of translation the application of which recurs in almost every sentence have been set apart at the beginning of the second year—first term, and third year-first, second, and third terms, with special instructions concerning them.

8. The rapidity with which a language can be learned depends of course on the amount of time devoted to study. Our work, though useful to all, being specially intended for schools, where certain limits of time and study cannot be exceeded, we have based our system on three lessons a week, as a minimum to be devoted to French, should the head-masters be anxious to prepare their pupils for the Oxford and Cambridge Senior in four years. For in less than that time a language cannot possibly be learned in schools where so many subjects take up the pupil's time.

We beg here to thank our numerous subscribers for their intelligent support which has encouraged us to publish this new grammar; the Rev. Henry Becke, M.A. (University College, Oxford), whose kind suggestions and occasional help have been most useful to us; and to let the scholastic world pass judgment on a work which has at least the merit of having been conscientiously undertaken and carried out.


* REMARK.—As an instance of this wild confusion, we beg to draw the attention of the reader to the various names given to the “preterite” tense; it is called “preterite indefinite' in examination papers, and “perfect” in some English grammars; “past” in others; past indefinite” in a few more ; and “past definite” in most French books.

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I. Accents

7 4 tenses of “ Avoir” 21 Spell words with French

letters. 2 tenses of

22 Decline Definite Article

II. Genders, Def. Art.

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V. Possessive Case 12 Comp. tenses of 23

Possessive Case. VI. Formation of fem. 13 4 tenses of "Être " 21 Avoir Neg. (simp.tenses).

and agreement of

VII. Irreg. Nouns and 14 2 tenses of

Neg. (comp.tenses). Adjectives VIII. Place of Adj. de for 16 2 tenses of

Int. (simp. tenses). du, de la, des IX. Comparatives 17 3 tenses of

Int. (comp. tenses). X. Superlatives 19 Comp. tenses of ,, 23

Int. and Neg. (in

How to Conjugate a Verb negatively.

How to Conjugate a Verb Interrogatively.
Rules on French

The Hyphen when used.
The Euphonic t, when used.

How to Form the Compound Tenses.
Avoir and Être.. {

21 Conjugated in their Simple Tenses.
23 | Conjugated in their Compound Tenses.



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1. Personal Pronouns. 25 5 tenses of " Flatter " 42 Être Neg. (simp. tenses).

Their place
II. How to translate 26 3 tenses of

Neg. (comp. tenses).
It. Place of Pro-
nouns in the Imp.

Mood III. Numerals 27/ 3 tenses of

Int. and Neg. (in

full). IV. Ordinal numbers. 29 6 tenses of “ Punir” 43 Parler Neg. (simp. When used. How



to express dates.

V. How to


express 30 5 tenses of Various

43 Aimer Int. and Neg.

(simp. tenses).

VI. Possessive Adj. and 32 6 tenses of “Recevoir” 44 Finir Neg. (simp. tenses).


VII. Demonstrative Adj. 33 5 tenses of

44 Obéir Int. and Neg. and Pronouns

(simp. tenses). VIII. Relative Pronouns 35 6 tenses of “ Rendre

45| Devoir

Neg. (simp.

tenses). IX. Primitive and De- 36 5 tenses of

45 Apercevoir Int. (simp. rived tenses

tenses). X. Primitive and De-38 Compound tenses of 46 Vendre Int. and Neg. rived tenses (con- Flatter," Punir,"

(simp. tenses). tinued)


and 47 “ Rendre"

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