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Union with Ireland considered

deemed advisable to renew pacific negociations with tensions of the French; the failure of the negociations
France. Lord Malmesbury was again sent on this at Lisle; the flourishing state of trade and the revenue;
mission ; and the city of Lisle was fixed on by the our naval victories, and our new conquests in the
directory for a conference. But the directory were not West Indies : and recommended those exertions
inclined for peace; after continuing at Lisle until Sep- which could alone ensure peace. As Fox and the
tember, exchanging useless notes and receiving many other great orators of the opposition still absented
insults, Lord Malmesbury was ordered to quit the themselves from parliament, there was little interest in
place within four and twenty hours. It was demanded the debate which followed, or in any of the debates
by the French negociators that the Cape of Good during this session. The army and navy estimates
Hope, and every island or settlement, French, Dutch, were readily passed, and supplies were early voted,
or Spanish, in the possession of Great Britain, should to the amount of £25,000,000. Among the ways and
pe given up without receiving any compensation. Such means adopted was the trebling of all the assessed
terms as these were incompatible with the nation's in- taxes. This measure met with strenuous opposition
terests and safety; whence the failure of this mission. from a few members; but the bill passed by a large
Moreover, there was a belief existing in France that majority,
England was on the verge of ruin; and the di.
retory fondly imagined that they would one day
triumph over her as they had done over the nations on
the Continent.

INTERNAL HISTORY OF FRANCE. Redemption of the Land-Tax, &c.— Irish Rebellion-luvasion of Be

gium-Expedition to Minorca — Battle of the Nile, &c.—Meering of

Parliament-Income Tax sanctioned, &c.— Treaty with RussiaDuring this year the harmony between the directory

-Prorogation of Parliament-Camand the legislative councils vanished. The new elec

paign in Italy Campaign in Egypt Establishment of the Consular

Government in France Affairs of India-Meeting of Parliamenttions produced this change; for men of a different Parliamentary Discussions- Union with Ireland completedProspirit were returned by the communes. The royalist

rogation of Parliament Campaign in Italy Capture of Malta

Naval Operations Meeting of Parliament --Motions for Peace, &c. party had, indeed, obtained the control of elections ; and the newly elected ihird entered the chambers of the representatives with plans of counter-revolution. The directory had the mortification of seeing the emi- REDEMPTION OF THE LAND-TAX, ETC. grants allowed to return, the re-establishment of priests, and a vote of censure passed upon the conduct

ARLY this session Pitt proposed and

A. D. Ecar of their emissaries in the colonies. The directory

* 1798.

carried a bill for the redemption of the were, in fact, shorn of power, and there was a faint

land-tax. This was followed by a bill, proprospect of the whole work of the revolution being set posed by Mr. Dundas, for enabling his majesty to call aside. But the nation was not yet prepared for such a out a portion of the supplementary militia. A second step. As the plans of the royalists, which were con- bill was also carried, to encourage voluntary armed cocted in the club of Clichy, became disclosed, the associations for the protection of the country, it being government regained strength. From fear of the re- now considered as menaced with invasion. Another turn of the old order of things, the patriots of 1791 bill was brought into the house by Dundas, by which united with the party of the convention; and the club the suspension of the habeas corpus act was revived. of Salm was got up in opposition to that of Clichy. A The alien bill also was renewed ; and Pitt proposed contest soon followed. The directory relied upon the and carried a measure for more effectually manning the armies, and they assembled some troops in the neigh- navy. As in the last session, so likewise in this, the bourhood of Paris; while the councils decreed the chancellor of the exchequer found himself compelled restoration of the national guards. The directory, to lay before the house a second estimate of supplies, however, hy one fell blow, annihilated the hopes of and to make a further demand of more than their enemies. On the 16th Fructidor, answering to £3,000,000, which was readily voted, as were also a the 4th of September, troops were brought to the capi- new increase of taxes on salt, tea, dogs, horses and tal under pretence of a review, and placed under the carriages, &c. to meet it. Late in the session Mr. disposal of Augereau. These troops surrounded the Wilberforce renewed his motion for the abolition of Tuileries, which was protected by the guards of the the slave-trade; and though his proposition was relegislative body, which, upon the question of Augereau, jected, several regulations were enacted for alleviating Are you republicans ? " immediately laid down their the sufferings of the wretched Africans on their pas

The contest was then decided. Augereau sage. These were the principal measures taken into took possession of the palace, and arrested the opposi- consideration during this session. Parliament was tion deputies. Barthelemy and Carnot, with forty prorogued on the 29th of June. members of the “ Council of Five Hundred," eleven of the “Council of the Ancients,” and ten other persons

IRISH REBELLION. of note were condemned to be deported to Cayenne. Most of these underwent their punishment; but some During the sitting of parliament a rebellion had escaped, and others were pardoned. Thirty-five jour- broken out in Ireland. Discussions on this subject nalists were likewise sentenced to deportation, and had been entered into with closed doors; and in the the elections of forty-eight departments were declared month of June, when the Irish insurgents had attacked null. In the whole one hundred and forty-nine mem- and beaten several detachments of the king's tro bers were excluded, and the vacancies were filled up message was delivered to parliament from the king, by the directory, with men willing to give them their desiring that he might be enabled to take all such support. The laws enacted in favour of priests and emi- measures as might be necessary to defeat any entergrants were revoked, and the oath of hatred to royalty prise of his enemies. The chief object of this message renewed. Thus a revolutionary government returned; was to allow the officers and privates of different and the constitution was trodden underfoot by men militia regiments, who had made a voluntary tender of who ostensibly were its supporters. And all this their services to assist in the suppression of the rebelthey called “Liberty.”

lion, to go to that country and act with the royal

troops ; and a bill was brought in and carried for MEETING OF PARLIAMENT.

that purpose. The rebellion, which was one of a for

inidable nature, had its origin in the association of The British parliament met on the nd of November. | United Irishmen, first instituted for obtaining universal In his speech his majesty dwelt on the excessive pre- suffrage. This association was afterwards re-organ.



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ized for the accomplishment of a revolution and a arms on the 23rd of May: that being the day appointed separation from Great Britain: parliamentary reform for their muster. A body of pikemen, amounting to and catholic emancipation being demanded only as 14,000, and headed by Father John Murphy, soon made pretexts to cover ulterior designs. A correspondence themselves masters of Wexford and Enniscorthy; and had long been maintained between the leaders of this having procured some artillery, they fortified a position association and the French directory, and notwith- on Vinegar Hill. Colonel Walpole with a small destanding the failure of Hoche, and likewise of a de- tachment of Cork Militia fell into an ambuscade, and sign of another armament, an agent was still resident was slaughtered, together with nearly all his men, by in Paris. Application was made to the directory for a the insurgents; and encouraged by these and other sucloan to assist the revolutionists; but the French rulers cesses they made a rush at Newross, where they began refused to grant it, unless they were permitted to send to plunder the inhabitants. But here they received a sufficient forces to effect the conquest of the country. check. Like the London rioters, they soon became It was evident that they wanted Ireland for themselves; mad with drink; and being attacked by General Johnbut the Irish “ patriots” wanted to rule themselves, son, nearly three thousand were either slain or cap and not to exchange masters; whence they expressed tured. This victory over them was followed by another themselves averse to this plan of invasion. The Irish more decisive : on the 21st of June General Lake indeed prepared for an insurrection without waiting attacked the fortified position at Vinegar Hill, and for continental assistance. They had been ripe for re- carried it with a frightful loss to the insurgents. The bellion through a long succession of ages, and no con- rebels, indeed, never rallied again ; and though some cessions made to them soothed their chafed minds. fearful atrocities were committed by isolated bands of Their turbulence had manifestly increased from the them, they were, in effect, from that time subdued. time of the American war, when the Irish volunteers Soon after, Lord Camden was recalled from the lieu. had been allowed to arm themselves; and, “whether tenancy of Ireland, and he was succeeded by Lord acting wisely or unwisely, liberally or illiberally- Cornwallis, who brought with him a general pardon to whether granting concessions or withholding them, all who submitted. Four of the leading conspirators Dearly every act of government had tended to aug- were executed; O'Conner, McNevin, Emmet, and ment the disaffection.” For the last ten years conces- Sampson were banished ; and others were pardoned. sions had been made to the Irish catholics, who formed The rebellion was somewhat revived in August, when about seven-tenths of the population : but it was all three French frigates reached Killola, and threw on to no purpose--the more they obtained, the more they shore nine hundred troops of the line, commanded by wanted. At length the smouldering embers of dis- General Humbert; but though these troops were affection burst forth into a flame. Early in this year a joined by some catholics, and though Humbert demilitary commission was appointed by the executive feated General Lake, and advanced into the heart of council of the United Irish, and nocturnal assemblies the country, he was eventually beaten by the advanced were held in various parts of the kingdom. People guard of General Cornwallis, who was marching were, indeed, everywhere sworn in, and it was finally against him with troops of the line, and on the 8th of settled that they should take up arms. Rebellion com- September, the French laid down their arms, and bemenced by midnight outrages. The most savage came prisoners of war. Subsequently, another French atrocities were committed on those whom the associ. armament reached the western coast of Ireland ; but ates were taught to consider as enemies and inter- Sir John Borlase Warren met it there with his squalopers in their domains, which outrages were severely dron, and captured one ship of the line, and three friretaliated by the Orangemen and military. In Febru- gates; and the rest of the armament, consisting of five ary, a pressing letter was addressed by the Irish frigates, returned to France. On board the French executive to the French directory: urging them to ship of the line was Wolfe Tone, one of the Irish send immediate succour, and stating that the people of leaders of the rebellion : his execution was the last on all classes throughout Ireland ready to take up arms account of this outbreak. Ireland was again quieted, amounted to 300,000 men. It was soon discovered but it was only for a brief season. It has ever been that mischief was afloat ; and on the 28th of February, its fate to be disturbed by agitation, and to this hour it Mr. Arthur O'Conner, said to be lineally descended remains the same. It is, in fact, a fine field for the from Roderic O'Conner, King of Connaught, Binns, agitator: the ardent passions of the people are easily an active member of the London Correspondent So- worked upon ; and he who is bold or artful enough to ciety, and Coigley, an Irish priest, were arrested at address himself to those passions, is ever sure of obtain. Margate, as they were on their route to France. A ing a listening and an admiring audience. paper was found on the priest, addressed "To the French directory;” and this paper and the trial which

INVASION OF BELGIUM. followed put government in possession of many important secrets. Coigley was executed on Pennenden In the month of May, after due preparations, Captain Heath; O'Conner was remanded on another charge of Home Poplam, with a small squadron, having on board high-treason; and Binns was acquitted. Several | a body of troops commanded by Colonel Coote, set sail arrests took place in consequence of the information for the purpose of destroying the sluices, gates, and thus gained, and some more papers were discovered in basin of the Bruges canal at Ostend. This town was the printing-office where O'Conner had been publish- bombarded, and the sluices were blown up; but on reing the revolutionary journal called,“ The Press.” But turning to the beach to re-embark, the soldiers were the most complete information obtained by government hemmed in by a superior force, and Coote found himwas from Thomas Reynolds, who was deep in the secrets self under the necessity of surrendering. of the association of United Irishmen. On his information, warrants were issued against several of the prin

EXPEDITION TO MINORCA. cipal conspirators : as, Messrs. Emmet, Sampson, and McNevin, and Lord Edward Fitzgerald. The three An expedition to Minorca was more successful. In former of these were soon apprehended; but Lord the autumn Admiral Duckworth's squadron landed in Fitzgerald concealed himself for some time ; and when Addaya Bay in that island a land-force of about discovered he made such a desperate resistance, killing eight hundred men, under General Sir Charles Stuart, a magistrate and wounding others sent to apprehend which compelled the Spanish governor to surrender him, that Major Sirr lodged the contents of a pistol in the whole of the island by capitulation. his shoulder, from the effects of which he soon after died. he was the leader of the conspirators. But notwith

BATTLE OF THE NILE, ETC. standing his fall, and in spite of the flight or arrest of overy member of the “ executive." the Irish flew to The grand aim of the French directory this yeer,

was the seizing and colonizing of Egypt. This idea had him during the storm, he finally set sail towards been suggested by Vergennes to the French govern- Naples. Here he learned that the enemy's fleet had ment during the monarchy, and it bad for some time visited Malta; and being left by his commander to act been entertained by Napoleon. The blow was chiefly upon his own judgment, he formed a plan of attacking it aimed at England; for the project was to gain posses- there. On his arrival, however, he discovered that the sion of Egypt, with a two-fold design of obtaining the French had already departet eastward, and rightly judg. riches of the Nile, and extending their sway to the ing that Alexandria was their destination, he steered banks of the Ganges, so that the empires of Turkey thither. He arrived at Alexandria on the 28th of June, and Hindostan might become annexed to the French and gaining no intelligence of the enemy, he returned to republic. It was to these ends that Napoleon pro- Sicily. By the public voice of England, he was declared posed an expedition to Egypt; and the directory were for this failure worthy of impeachment ; and Earl St. well pleased with it, because if its great object should Vincent was censured for sending so young an officer on fail, they hoped thereby to rid themselves of a danger- so important a service. On arriving at Sicily, the Neaous and troublesome rival. But funds were wanting politan ministry, anxious to avoid everything which to carry this design into effect; for though Italy and could endanger their peace with the French directory, other countries had been pillaged by the French sol. declared openly to aid him; but through Lady Hamildiery, with a defiance of all principle or political honesty, ton's influence at court, Nelson procured secret orders yet was the government poverty-stricken: wever, to the Sicilian governors, under which he obtained all the French directory looked around for some weak necessary supplies from Syracuse. As soon as he had ally or neutral to plunder, and their cupidity was di- re-victualled and taken in fresh water, he turned his rected towards free Switzerland. Berne had a well- power again toward Egypt, asserting in a letter to his replenished treasury; and on the flimsy pretext of its commander, that if the French were bound to the Anhaving publicly enrolled emigrants and given shelter to tipodes, or if they were anywhere above water, he deserters, a French army, under General Breme, was would discover them and bring them to action. He sent on the marauding errand of demanding the public searched for them in vain along the coast of the Morea, purse of its citizens. Success attended this armed and he took the resolution of again sailing towards banditti; the ruling families of Berne were displaced ; Alexandria ; and on the 1st of August, Captain Hood the government changed ; the most respectable sena- in the “ Zealous" signalized the enemy's fleet at antors were banished; the treasury was confiscated; chor in Aboukir Bay. No time was lost by Nelson in and large contributions likewise exacted for the supply preparing for action: he had sought them with eagerof the invading army. The money thus fraudulently ness, and he determined to conquer them now that obtained enabled Napoleon to set sail for Egypt. His they were discovered. Signals were given for battle : expedition counted thirteen ships of the line, with to attack the enemy's van and centre, as they lay at an. seven frigates and smaller vessels, making in the whole chor, Nelson had scarcely taken rest or food for some forty-four sail. The fleet was commanded by Rear- days, but he now ordered dinner to be served up; and admiral Brueys, and the transports had on board about he observed to his officers as they rose from the table : 20,000 men, with a proportionable number of horses “Before this time to-morrow I shall have gained a and artillery, provisions and military stores, as well as peerage or Westminster Abbey." The enemy's ships a large body of scientific men, who joined the arma- were moored in compact line of battle, describing an ment in order to make researches into the antiquities obtuse angle, close in with the shore, flanked by gunand productions of Egypt. The capture of Malta was boats, four frigates, and a battery of guns and mortars included in the plan of the French directory, and on an island in their van. This was a formidable posiNapoleon arrived there on the 9th of June; and Hom- tion, and to some commanders one which would have pesch, the Grand Master, terrified by the threats of deterred from an attack. But it was not so with Nelsome of the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jeru. son. As soon as he discovered the enemy's position, salem in the French interest, capitulated on a summons his genius dictated what should be done. Where an to surrender. Having plundered the churches, and enemy's ship could swing, he reasoned, there was roon the Alberghi, and other establishments of the order, for a British ship to anchor. Acting upon this thought, and having left General Vaubois to take care of the therefore, lie determined to station his ships on the inisland, Buonaparte re-embarked for Egypt. He came ner side of the French line. In this way the two fleets in sight of Alexandria on the 29th of June, and on the joined battle. Minutely to describe this great sea-fight next day the troops landed within three miles of that would require many pages, it will be sufficient therecity. Alexandria was captured, and from its walls fore to say, that the victory on the part of the English Napoleon issued a proclamation, telling the inhabitants was complete. Of the thirteen French ships of the that he came as the friend of the Sultan, to deliver line, eight surrendered, two struck on the shore and them from the Mamelukes, and that he and his soldiers were afterwards captured, one blew up, and two only respected Gud, his prophet Mohammed, and the Ko- escaped. Had Nelson not received a severe wound in ran. On the 7th of July Napoleon moved from Alex- the head in the very hottest of the battle, it is probable andria to Cairo, and on the 21st, on arriving in sight of that not one of the enemy's fleet would have left the great pyramids, he discovered the whole Mame- Aboukir Bay. The British loss in killed and wounded luke force, under Murad Bey and Ibraham Bey, ready was 895 ; the French, 8330 in killed, wounded, and to meet him. Battle was soon joined, and was easily captured. “ Victory,” said Nelson, “is not a word won by the French. Such of the Mamelukes as escaped strong enough for such a scené: it is a conquest.” destruction retreated towards Egypt. The conqueror The effects of this battle were soon seen in Egypt. took possession of Grand Cairo, sending Desaix against The Sultan issued an indignant manifesto, declaring Murad Bey in Upper Egypt.

war against France for invading one of his provinces As the French fleet was sailing towards Egypt, it in a time of peace and amity; and called upon the passed near an English squadron, under Nelson : a Pashas of Syria to collect their forces. The destructhick haze sheitered it from his observation, and fa- tion of the French fleet was announced far and wide voured its progress. Nelson had been despatched by by fires kindled by the Arabs; and on the 22nd of SepLord St. Vincent to watch the preparations at Toulon, tember, the people of Cairo killed a great number of the having under him three ships of seventy-four guns and French in the streets. This insurrection was put down four frigates. At the time of the French fleet's sailing by a dreadful massacre of the inhabitants ; but the he had put into the Sardinian port of San Pietro, to blood of the Moslems thus slain, and many of them in reft his squadron, it having been damaged by a storm. the great mosque of the prophet, called for vengeance, While here, he received a re-enforcement of ten line-of- and it was easy to forsee that Napoleon, albeit he probattle ships, and one of fifty guns; and with this force claimed himself to be the man of destiny foretold in the mexcept the frigaies, which had been separated from Koran, would soon be compelled to retire from Egypt. In Europe, the effects of this battle were instantaneous eloquence, which inspired the country at large with und surprising. It raised the drooping spirits of the Anti- admiration of his talents. Mr. Canning entered into a Gallican party in every country; and it filled all Eng- full investigation of our foreign policy, and vindicated land with transports of joy and triumph. Nelson was the treaties and alliances made by government. IIe raise to the peerage with the title of Baron Nelson of remarked:-“It is justly contended that the deliver. the Nile, and many other honours were heaped upon ance of Europe cannot be effected by our exertions him. He returned to Naples, where he found that the alone, and that, unless other powers are sincerely disking was collecting a numerous arıny, with a view posed to co-operate, we are setting out on a romantic of driving the French from Rome and Tuscany; that and absurd enterprise, which we have no chance of the congress at Radstadt had been virtually broken accomplishing, no duty or call to undertake. I perup ; that the Emperor of Austria was again arming ; fectly agree, that if other powers are not disposed to and that a new coalition was forming against the co-operate, we have no chance of success; but I cannot French; their conduct at Rome, in Switzerland, and help asking at the same time, if there be no such disother countries, being in direct opposition to the condi- position on the part of other powers, where is the use, tions of the treaty at Campo Formio. In November or what is the necessity of the honourable gentleman's the island of Gozo, separated from Malta by a narrow motion ? Why need parliament interfere to prevent channel, capitulated to a detachment of Nelson's his majesty's ministers from taking advantage of dissquadron, and Malta itself was closely blockaded. positions which do not exist, and from accepting co

operation which will not be offered ? But if the MEETING OF PARLIAMENT.

powers of Europe, or any of them, are ready to do

their part toward the common salvation, and want only Parliament assembled on the 20th of November. our countenance and encouragement to begin ; if the In his speech from the throne his majesty spoke with train is laid, if the sparks of resentment, which the exultation of the victory gained by Nelson; and after aggressions of France have kindled in every nation alluding to other successes, and to the suppression of throughout Europe, want but our breath to blow them the Irish rebellion, congratulated the country on the into a conflagration, it is the dictate of our duty, our prospect of new alliances, by which it might be antici- interest, our feeling, to save France from destruction, pated that the power of France would be humbled. and not by a coarse and hasty proceeding, like that This alluded more especially to Russia, where the Czarina now recommended to us, to throw a wet blanket on the Catherine had recently been succeeded by her son flames." Mr. Canning proceeded to show how an Paul, whose line of policy was different from that of his alliance with Russia and Turkey might enable us to mother. The address was animadverted upon in both sweep the remains of the French armament from the houses by some members of opposition ; but it was, Levant and the Mediterranean, and how the probable nevertheless, carried without a division.

accession of other allies might wrest from the republic

both Italy and the Netherlands, Pitt followed in the INCOME TAX SANCTIONED, ETC.

same strain, eloquently unfolding the favourable pros

pects of another coalition. The picture he drew made During this session the primary objects of parlia a favourable impression on the house; and Mr. mentary consideration were, financial propositions, Tierney's motion was lost. Moreover, all sums required with measures for internal defence, for invigorating for Russia were voted, and three millions more also the European confederacy now forming, and for effect were granted to his majesty, for making good such ing a permanent union between Great Britain and other engagements as he might contract. Soon after Ireland. The estimated supplies for the ensuing year this the Porte, Russia, and Naples signed a treaty of were put at £29,272,000 ; and Pitt proposed a new union with England, the duration of which was fixed plan for raising a considerable part of them-by an for eight years. Their conditions were generally INCOME TAX. A series of resolutions to this new and a mutual guarantee of all possessions, including Egypt bold plan were passed in the house of commons before in the case of the Porte; a common prosecution and the close of the year; and the hill finally passed into termination of the war; the closing of all harbours, a law on the 18th of March ensuing, the 5th of April and especially those in the Mediterranean, against the being the day fixed upon for making the returns of French ; with British subsidies to other states. Italy personal property. Pitt's resolutions in substance was to be the first field of action for the allied powers, were, that the augmentation of the assessed taxes the design being to save the King of Naples from made in the last session should be repealed, and have French domination. its place supplied by a duty upon all incomes above sixty pounds a year. If a man's income exceeded two

UNION WITH IRELAND CONSIDERED hundred pounds a year, he was to pay ten per cent. upon it; if it exceeded one hundred pounds, he was to

A plan for uniting Ireland under one legislapay considerably less upon it; and if between sixty


ture with Great Britain, as Scotland, had pounds and one hundred pounds, he was to be taxed in

been discussed and seriously entertained à diminished proportion. This bill, after undergoing before the breaking out of the recent rebellion; but some amendments of detail, passed ; and Pitt antici- that event had made the necessity of such a union pated a revenue from it of £10,000,000, the yearly in more apparent. The union of England and Ireland, come of the whole nation being about £102,000,000. indeed, was a favourite measure at this time with Pitt; Early in the session 120,000 men were voted for the and a pamphlet was published, under his auspices, by navy, and an increase of the yeomanry and militia was the under-secretary, Mr. Cooke, setting forth its adsanctioned.

vantages. The public mind was therefore prepared to

discuss the question; and parliament was soon called TREATY WITH RUSSIA.

upon to take it into consideration. On the 22nd of

January a message was received from his majesty, reOn the 18th of December a provisional treaty was commending the consideration of the most effectual concluded between Great Britain and Russia ; the means of defeating the designs of our enemies to progeneral object of which was to oppose the progress of mote a separation between the two kingdoms, by the French arms. In allusion to this, on the 18th of settling such a complete and final adjustment as might December, Mr Tierney moved, " That it was the duty perpetuate a connexion essential for the common of ministers to advise his majesty against entering into security, and consolidute the power and resources of engagements which might prevent or impede negocia- the British empire. This message was reported next tions for peace with the French republic.” On this day, when Mr. Dundas moved and carried an address, oocasion Mr. Canning delivered a master-piece of importing that the house would proceed with all speed

A. D.

to a consideration of the several interests submitted to who hastened from Minorca with 1000 troops, in order their attention. It was agreed that the question to assist him in measures for its defence. should be considered on the 31st of January ; and on While Naples was thus falling a prey to the that day Pitt, after explaining the grounds which French, Austrian and Russian troops were collecting would make the union as beneficial to Ireland as to on the other side of the Alps. After demanding England, proposed certain resolutions as the basis of from the Emperor of Germany the dismissal of all the the measure. Those resolutions were, that the two Russian troops, the French negociators declared the islands should be united into one kingdom, by the congress at Radstadt dissolved. War, therefore, comname of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and menced anew with Austria ; and Jourdan once more Ireland; that the succession to the crown should be crossed the Rhine, and established himself in Suabia. limited and settled as at present; that the united In the month of March he advanced towards the realm should be represented by one parliament, in Danube ; but he was again met by the Archduke which a certain number of Irish lords and commons, Charles, who drove him back over the Rhine. About hereafter to be defined, should have a seat; that the the same time, also, the Austrian generals, Bellegarde churches of England and Ireland should be preserved and Hotze, recovered the Grison country, and poured as by law established; that the Irish should be en- into Switzerland, driving the French, under Massena, titled to the same privileges, in point of navigation before them. In the meantime another Austrian and trade, with the English, subject to certain regula- army, commanded by General Melas, poured through tions relative to equality of duties;, that the charge the Tyrol, driving all the French outposts before him, for payment of the interest of the debt of each king- and entered Upper Italy, where he obliged the French dom before the union, should be continued to be paid by general, Scherer, to retire beyond the Mincio. Moreau the respective countries; and that all laws in force at subsequently took the command of Scherer's forces; the time of the union, and all the courts, civil or but he was likewise defeated by Melas. It was while ecclesiastical, should remain as already established, Melas was giving chase to Moreau that Suvaroff came subject only to such alterations as circumstances might up with 50,000 Russians, and assumed the chief comrecommend to the united parliament. After some mand of both armies. A great battle was gained by long and warm debates these resolutions, with some Suvaroff at Cassano, on the 27th of April, and by that slight amendments, were agreed to, and sent up to the victory the fate of the Cisalpine republic was sealed; peers ; and after another warm debate in the upper everywhere the people rose in arms against the French; house, a joint address to the king was agreed to, pre- and the native democrats whom the French had set up zenting the resolutions as a proper basis for the union. as a government, Brescia and Peschiera, surrendered; But here, as regarded England, the matter rested for Mantua was invested; and Suvaroff ertered Milan in the present year.

triumph. Moreau continued his retreat towards Genoa,

hoping to be joined there by the army of Macdonald PROROGATION OF PARLIAMENT.

from Naples. But Macdonald was already on his route

to meet the Russo-Austrian army, which he found by During the remainder of this session no subject of the river Trebia. In his route he had been joined by vital interest was discussed. Parliament was prorogued

General Victor; but after three days' hard fighting on on the 12th of July, when his majesty declared that the the banks of the Trebia, he was defeated by Suvaroff; decision and energy of his ally, the Emperor of and flying thence towards the pass of Bochetta, he Russia, and the intimate union established between joined Moreau, who had recently received some re-enthem, would enable him to employ the means intrusted forcements from Nice and Genoa. Moreau had made to him advantageously, both for the safety and honour nines, and in the entrance of the Bochetta pass, behind

some entrenchments on the declivities of the Apen of this country, as well as the independence of Europe. the Piedmontese town of Novi. While here he was suHis majesty also adverted with satisfaction to the restored tranquillity of Ireland and its future security, perseded in command by Jourdan, who stationed himself intimating that it could only be insured by a complete tended his field-works. He was attacked in this formid,

on the same heights behind Novi, and improved and exunion with Great Britain.

able position by Suvaroff; and his army was defeated

and himself slain. Shortly after this victory Suvaroff CAMPAIGN IN ITALY.

struck across the Alps to make head against Massena,

who had recently defeated a Russian corps under Before the subsidiary treaty was signed between General Korsakoff, who had arrived in Switzerland to England and the Emperor Paul, the court of Vienna co-operate with General Bellegarde and the Austrians. had formed a close alliance with the czar; and Russian There was some fearful fighting in the ravines of St. troops had begun to assemble on the frontiers of Aus- Gothard, and Suvaroff opened a way into the heart of tria, while a large German army was collecting between Switzerland; but not being assisted by either the the rivers Inn and Lech. The great object proposed Russian general, Korsakoff, or the Austrian general, was to drive the French out of Italy, where their arms Bellegarde, he turned aside towards the lake of Conwere still making great progress. In November of stance and Germany. He was interrupted in his the last year the liberation of the states of Italy was march by Massena; but he attained his object, and undertaken by the King of Naples, who placed General effected a junction with Korsakoff; and then the two Mack at the head of his forces. Mack succeeded in Russian generals marched to Augsburg, leaving the making himself master of Rome; while 5000 troops, French once more absolute masters of Switzerland. conveyed by British ships, took possession of Leghorn. The Neapolitan kingdom was recovered in the But this success was of short duration. In the month course of the months of June and July by Cardinal of December the Neapolitan troops suffered a signal Ruffo, assisted by Lord Nelson. A sanguinary vendefeat at Civita Castellana ; and this disaster was geance was taken on the republicans by the Neapolitan followed by the evacuation of Rome. Nor did the government; and Nelson himself tarnished his fair French successes stop here. Following up their vic- fame by deeds at which a right-minded Englishman tory, under General Champiounet, by the middle of must shudder, and which no one will venture to January they obtained possession of Naples ; and the palliate. It had been guaranteed to the republican King of Sardinia was obliged to take refuge on board garrisons that their persons and property should be rethe British fleet. He afterwards went to Palermo under spected ; but these garrisons were delivered over to British protection, resigning all his continental terri- the vengeance of the Sicilian court, and that by the tories to his conquerors, who also soon occupied all brave Nelson. “A deplorable transaction," says his Tuscany ; Sicily was preserved from their domination biographer, a stain on his memory and on the honour by the energy of Neison, assisted by Sir Charles Stuart, I of England ! te palliate, it would be vnine to justify


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