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BENARES, THE SACRED CITY

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markable discoveries made this year at Sarnath. They will, it is hoped, give some idea of the wonderful artistic wealth of Benares life, and at the same time be more instructive than those of ordinary books of travel.

The authorities consulted include Sherring's Sacred City of the Hindus; The Life and Times of Sri Sankaracharya, by C. Krishnasami Aiyar; and the works of Barth, Beal, Sylvain Lévi, Rhys Davids, Monier Williams, Max Müller, Taylor, and many others. My acknowledgments are due to Messrs. E. J. Lazarus & Co., of Benares, for permission to use Mr. Ralph Griffiths' translation of the Rig Veda; and to Messrs. Soin Brothers, Calcutta, for extracts from Pandit Tattvabhushan's translations of the Upanishads.

I am indebted to H.H. the Maharajah of Benares and staff for much courteous assistance; and to Babus Abanindro Nath Tagore, Dinesh Chandra Sen, and other Indian friends for valuable information.

Mr. J. H. Marshall, Director-General of the Archæological Survey of India, Dr. Vogel, Messrs. Johnstone & Hoffman, Calcutta, and Messrs. Saeed Bros., Benares, have kindly helped me with some of the illustrations.

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E. B. HAVELL

CALCUTTA, October, 1905.

CONTENTS

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CHAPTER XI. REMAINS OF OLD BEXARES-A HINDU-NUHAN.

MADAN RIOT-A WEAVERS COLONY

The study of Indian sculpture and painting-Miniature stone
emples, Mosques built of materials from ancient temples,
The Lật Bhairo-Bakariya Kund . . . . . . 199

CHAPTER XII. BENARES UNDER BRITISH RULE

Chet Singh and Warren Hastings—The murder of Mr. Cherry
-Influence of British rule-Benares and Neo-Hinduisia ·

210

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