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the standard, which that officer used in his B. C. 750. battle against Zohác, he adorned it with precious stones, and preserved it in his treasury *
Feridun, wishing to spend the last his life in a studious retirement, divided his vast dominions between his three sons: he allotted Syria and the western provinces to Salm, who was, perhaps, the Salmanalser of the Jews; he gave the country beyond the Oxus to Túr, whence the Transoxan Regions were called Túrán, and assigned the kingdom of Khorasan and all the heart of his Empire to Irage, his youngest son, whose share took the name of Irán, which it ftill retains. The two elder brothers, thinking this division par tial, made war against Irage, and slew him in ą cruel manner; they would even have de. throned Feridun, had not Manucheher, son of Irage, a youth of great hopes, led a powerful army against them, and avenged the death of his father. This division of the Persian empire into Iran and Turan has been a source of perpetual dissensions between the Persians
* This Standard, which bore for many ages the name
is said to have been brought into كاواني ,of Gavani
the field by the last King of the Safanian race, when his army engaged the Arabs at Cadelfia, in the year 636 of our æra; but it was taken by Saad, Omar's general, who distributed the jewels, which adorned it, among his officers.
B. C. 720.
B. C. 750. and Tartars, as the latter have taken every
opportunity of passing the Oxus, and laying waste the districts of Khorasan; they have even pushed their conquests so far, as to overturn the power of the Califs, and afterwards to raise a mighty Empire on the banks of the Ganges.
MANUCHEHER * made great improvements in the government of Persia, and was the first who began to fortify his cities with ramparts and ditches. He was fond of im, proving gardens, and of cultivating curious plants. He was not fortunate in war, though his General and Vizir, the son of Neriman, was the bravest hero of his age. the celebrated Rostam is faid to have been born of Rudába, an Indian princess, by Zálzer or The golden-haired, a youth of exquisite beauty and eminent virtues: but, as Rostam was, certainly, a Commander under Cyrus, he must, if we place him under Manucheber, have lived above an hundred and fifty years; which is scarce credible, though such a fiction may be allowed in the poems of Ferdus.
NUZAR †, son of Manucheber, succeeded to the diadem, but not to the glory, of his father. While his court was torn in pieces
In his reign
B C, 695.
by a number of factions, Afráfiáb, King of B. C. 695. Túrán, a lineal descendant from Túr, son of Feridun, passed the Oxus with a formidable army, and, having defeated the Persian Monarch, flew him with his own hand. This Invader reigned twelve years in Persia, but was forced by Zalzer, or The Prince with golden Hair, to repass the Oxus, and return to his own dominions. It is more than probable, that Afrafiáb was a common name for the Kings of Afiatick Tartary, since the grandfather of Cyrus, whom we commonly call Afyages, bore the same name, and we cannot suppose Him to have been the first invader of Persia*.
It was not long before the Turanians invaded B. C. 667. Iran a second time, and, by forcing the great commanders of Persia to defend their own Principalities, reduced the power of the Perfian Kings to a shadow. Afrasiab, either the monarch above-mentioned, or another of his name, is reckoned the ninth king of Persia.
ZAV + was a prince of the royal line, and B. C. 639. was placed on the throne by Zalzer, but en
* The family of Othman, who now reign at Constantinople, are willing to be reputed descendants from this King of Turan, and are flattered with the Epithet of Afrafáb Jáh, or ola whawl jl Powerful as Afrafiáb.
B. C. 633.
B. C. 639. joyed only the title of King, as the Turanians
had overrun great part of his Empire, and kept him in continual alarm. These are the Scythians of our Ancient Histories, who are said about this time to have invaded the kingdom of the Medes; but our best historians are apt to confound them with the Scythians of the North.
GERSHASP*, son of Zav, or KISHTASP, as some writers call him, reigned but few years,
if it could be called reigning, to have the name of King, and to be more helpless than his subjects: he was the laft prince of the Pishdadians. During the reign of these monarchs in Persia, if we believe our Chronologers, Dido built Carthage, Homer wrote his Poems, which were afterwards brought into Greece by Lycurgus; the Pyramids of Egypt were raised by Cheops, Cepbren, and Nitocris; the Allyrians founded a powerful Dynasty ; Athens was first governed by Archons ; and Şabaco, whom the Persians call Cus Pildend t, or with the Teeth of an Elephant, because he first made use of that beast in his wars, became famous in Ethiopia, and spread his arms over all Africa. This warriour was contemporary with Feridun,
کو پیلدند +
who reigned, as we have seen, seven hundred B. C. 633. and fifty years before Christ, at which time, says Newton, Sabaco the Ethiopian invaded Egypt. Rome, the rival of Carthage and Athens, was built in the reign of Gershálp.
The Caianian Family.
WHILE Zalzer, the most powerful prince of B. C. 610. Persia, was encamped in his province of Seistán, the Drangiana of the Greeks, Afraħab, who had subdued all Media, considered himself as Sovereign of the Empire. By this time, another son of Zav, named Cobád, began to distinguish himself in his engagements against the Turanians, and, being affifted by Zalzer, whose fon Rostam was very young at this time, he was enabled to drive the invaders from Iran, and to place himself upon the throne of his ancestors. Æschylus, who flourished but an hundred years after this event, rightly attributes the recovery of