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country, defeated a numerous army of Turanians, with little loss on his fide, was heard to say Kharezmi búd, or, it was an easy victory; a tradition, which seems to prove the antiquity of the Persian language, for Rezm, in the modern dialect, signifies a battle, and Búd, it was.
The Kharezmians have always been esteemed lovers of musick and poetry; some of their verses are preserved in Arabick, which are very sprightly and elegant. They have not a very warm climate, for their rivers are generally frozen in winter. The principal cities of Kharezm are, 1. CORCANGE, whose inhabitants used to traffick in raw silk and faffion; it stands on the west of the Oxus, which in this place bends its course to the north. 2. CATH, once the capital of the province. 3. HEZARESB, famous for a castle almost impregnable. 4. DARGAN, the first city which you enter,
you come from Merú in Kborafán. 5. ZAMAKHSHAR, renowned only for being the birthplace of a great scholar and able grammarian, commonly called Zamakhshari*, author of a most learned and entertaining work in ninetynine chapters, which he chose to entitle Al
* In Asabick
Rabi, or The Vernal Recreation *: to thefe cities Abulfeda adds FARABR, a small town clofe to the Oxus, near which the river is fordable.
BADAKHSHAN and TOKHARESTAN 4, the countries of the ancient Mafiageta, lie towards the fource of the Gihún or Oxus, and are separated from Turán by the district of Kbotlán, and the town of lakhs, which stands in a pleasant and fruitful territory. There is a city also named Badakhshan, near which are some mines, where the balafs rubies are commonly found. We have a collection of poems by a native of this country, who is commonly called Badaksbi; one of his couplets is quoted by M. d'Herbelot, in which he compares the life of man to an hourglass, that is always alternately high and low I. On the south of Badakhshán is the province and city of CANDAHAR Ş, situated in the
این فلك همچو شیشه ساعتست مراعتي زير وساعتي زبردست
قندهار In Perfan و
mountains, which the Greeks called Paropamisus.
ALGEZIRAH, or the Peninsula, for so the Arabians call the province of Mesopotamia, lies, as its Greek name imports, between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates, or, as the Easterns call them, Degelab, and Forát. This extensive country is divided into four Diár, or cantons, which took their names from as many Arabian tribes, who formerly settled in them; that of Becr is best known to our Geographers. The principal cities of Mefopotamia are, 1. ROHA, called by our writers Edesa, which was taken by the Crusaders, and afterwards recovered by the Persians from Baldwin, King of Jerusalem. 2. HARRAN, which the Romans called Carrha, where Crasus and his army were defeated.
3. RACCA, not Aračta, as it is written in the maps, the birth-placeof the astronomer Batáni, a very accurate observer of the heavens. 4 NASSIBIN, the Nisibe of the Ancients, which has been a subject of perpetual contention between the Persian and Roman Emperors : and, 5. MUSEL, near which it is supposed, that Niniveh was anciently built ; it was the native city of an excellent musician, thence named Múfeli, who, by the his melody, is said to have reconciled the
power of Calif Al Rabid to the fair Maridah, his mistress, at whose behaviour he had taken fome offence.
The Tartarian Kingdoms.
The large and beautiful kingdom, which lies between the Gibún and Sibún, or the ancient Oxus and lärartes, is called by the Persians TURAN*, by the Arabians, Mawarannahart or, The province beyond the river, and by the Greeks Sogdiana, from the pleasant valley of Sogd, which shall presently be described : they might have called it Mefopotamia, if that name had not been before applied to another country. It has Badakhshan on the east, and on the north, the vast regions of Turkestan or Scythia, which reach to the confines of the Rusian and Chinese Empires. The valley or plain of SOGDI, passes among the Asia.
ما ورا النهر In Arabick +
| In Perfian iw
ticks for one of the most delightful spots in the world; it is an hundred and twenty miles in length, and fixty in breadth, and a large river, named Caï, rolls through it, which branches into a thousand clear streams, that water the gardens and cultivated lands, with which the whole plain is covered. In the midft of this vale stands the city of SAMARCAND, which was very rich and flourishing in the fourteenth century: the territory is now possessed by the Uzbeks, a warlike nation, who took it from the descendants of Tamerlane. That Conqueror was born at CASH, a pleasant city, about a day's journey from Samarcand. In short, Sogdiana lies in the fame climate with Italy and Provence, and has the advantage of a sky perpetually clear, the coolest rivers, and the most excellent fruits. The other famous cities of Transoriana are, 1. BOKHARA, through which the Russian merchants used to pass in their journeys to China; it was in this century the seat of a sovereign prince, whom Mirza Makadi calls king of Bokhára, by which he means the whole territory of Sogdiana. NAKHSHEB, where a celebrated author was born, who wrote in Persian a book called The Tales of a Parrot, not unlike the Decamerone of Boccace. 3. ZAMIN, where the