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the General for his kindness, but declined his offer, on the ground that he did not wish to interfere with his nephew's prospects.

In 1843, Colonel Mountain returned to England, married a second time in 1845, and, having been offered by Lord Dalhousie, who had become Governor-General of India, the appointment of Military Secretary, accepted it and arrived in Calcutta in January, 18 18. The second Sikh War breaking out almost immediately after, he applied for and received leave to join his regiment (the 29th, into which he had exchanged) in the field. On reaching Head Quarters, he received command of a brigade in the division of General Gilbert, consisting of his own, the 29th Queen's, and the 13th and 30th N. I. We find him writing as follows:

November 9, Gunda Singh Wala. “Here I am for the second time, not as visitor, but as head of a camp of three regiments, extending over the plain, and containing • about 3,000 fighting men ; but perhaps not less than 11,000 human ' beings of one sort or another. My General of division, however, ' not far from me, that is with the C.-in-C. about a mile to the rear.

We move to Kupoor to-morrow. We marched at four from the ' 29th barracks, my two native corps coming up in rear.

It was a • beautiful moonlight, and the band was inspiring ...... We had to * ford the first branch of the river, which is only ankle-deep, and ' then came to the bridges, where there was an immense crush of

cattle and followers. The General had stopped to let the brigade pass,

and the bands played as they passed. On crossing the second bridge, General Gilbert, who was on the bank, welcomed me to the Punjab. He is a fine frank soldier-like fellow, and I am very glad to be in his division......"

By the death of Colonel Cureton in the action at Ramnuggur, the office of Adjutant-General of H. M.'s forces had become vacant, and it was offered by Lord Gough to Colonel Mountain, subject of course to the approval of the Duke of Wellington. Lord Dalhousie also wrote to him :

“ If the Commander-in-Chief (as I conceive he will) should offer you the succession to the Adjutant-General's Commission, do not ' let any consideration of me lead you to decline what would be so ' much for your interest ...... I need not assure you of my confidence ' and attachment, and of my pleasure therefore, in your continued • service with me personally ; but I hope, I need as little assure you

of my greater pleasure in seeing your interests substantially pro. moted in official, though less close connection with myself.”

Lord Gough's offer was gratefully accepted, but it was arranged that Colonel Mountain should retain command of his brigade till the answer from the Horse Guard was received,

The battle of Chillianwallah was fought on the 13th January, 1849. On the following day, Colonel Mountain wrote to Lord Dalhousie :


“ We marched from Lussoorie on the 12th, and reached ground, the ' name of which I forget, after a march of six and a half hours. We

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' marched again yesterday, 13th, in order of battle, and about 'noon had a scrimmage with the advanced post of the Sikh, who was

soon induced to abandon it after a salute from our heavy guns. We . then formed up, and a head-quarter officer told me in passing,

Major Mackeson has persuaded the chief not to attack to-day, ' and our baggage was ordered up from the rear, but about half-past

one, the Sikh opened the ball with artillery ; our heavy guns were . then thrown forward, and replied. My brigade was lying down in line, the round shot toddling spent were picked up, and hurt only two

After a time, the chief passed down and said, “Advance," so up and forward was the word. We had what is the severest 'trial for infantry, to charge against grape through jungle. The • Sikh had brought his field guns into the jungle, dug trenches,

which were evidently fresh, for his matchlock men, and supported ' them by cavalry. I had not gone 100 yards before I lost sight of any superior officer, as well as of any support, but we pushed

we had taken the last gun in our front, on the skirt of the jungle. The Sikh cavalry were on the open to my right front, and if I had had cavalry, I might have swept them bebefore

me, but as the enemy were all about the jungle and on my 'flanks, I could not advance further, and after a time, I got an order ' to move to my left to support General Campbell. Thus the guns ' that we had taken, were left to be carried off by others. We brought

away two however, and the rest I believe were brought away by spare horses from the artillery. I can give no account of the whole, as in such a jungle, each brigade, and in some cases each regiment, had to act for itself

. My loss has been heavy, it has pleased God to spare me, but I grieve for officers of my brigade, and for men too, though I do not yet know the number. The ' 24th Queen's suffered severely! Brigadier Pennycuick, Colonel · Brooke, and one of the Majors, killed ; Brigadier General Campbell wounded ; Major Ekins, D. A. G., killed. “ After the enemy had been driven back and had disappeared, it was near night fall, and we had to come back here, the line of the • Sikh advanced post, for water. It was quite dark before we arrived, ' and we had to bivouac as we could. We lay on the ground without ' covering, shelter, or food. Fortunately we had only two or three

slight showers, the heavy rain having kept off till after we got our tents this morning, and we are now all comfortable. The chief intended to have pushed his advantage this morning, but a

report came that the enemy had abandoned their camp ;-happily, ' for if we had advanced, and been caught in this heavy rain after 'the fatigues and losses of yesterday, the troops would have suffered • much. The Chief was pleased to say on the ground last night, " that my brigade had done its duty well.”

Upon the folly which prompted, and the blind inconsiderateness which planned this disastrous battle,-a battle which was utterly barren in results, and which yet cost England many of her noblest sons, it is not our purpose now to dwell. The personal heroism, and final brilliant success of the General Commanding have, in the estimation of many

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a critic, mitigated the censure which would otherwise have been awarded. Our object at present is merely to shew how Colonel Mountain played his part. We have given above his own cautious and modest letter to Lord Dalhousie. The following extracts from the newspapers will interest our readers. They are taken from the memoir:

“ The 4th brigade was sent against the centre of what was supposed to be the enemy's line, and advanced, under their gallant · leader Brigadier Mountain, in the most undaunted manner through ' the jungle, in the face of a fire (a storm) first of round shot, ' then grape, and lastly musketry, which mowed down the officers • and men by dozens. Still they advanced, and on reaching the

guns, spiked every one in front, and two others on the left, which ' had subsequently opened a flank fire upon them.”

Another paper says:

“ The 29th charged nobly, like a wall, and took many guns, but • how many have been actually secured is not known. Mountain in

the thickest of the most murderous fire the oldest officers ever saw, • escaped unhurt by a miracle. What a gallant fellow he is !"

Sir Hugh Gough's despatch, also, is very honourable to Colonel Mountain. He says :

“ The right attack of infantry, under that able officer General Sir Walter Gilbert, was most praiseworthy and successful. The

left brigade, under Brigadier Mountain, advanced under a heavy ' fire upon the enemy's guns, in a manner that did credit to the · Brigadier and his gallant brigade, which came first into action ' and suffered severely. This division nobly maintained the charac' ter of the Indian Army, taking and spiking the whole of the ' enemy's guns in their front, and dispersing the Sikhs wherever • they were seen.......... Sir Walter Gilbert speaks warmly of the

charge led by Brigadier Mountain against a large battery of the ' enemy, and followed up on his right by Brigadier Godby, and of 'the subsequent conduct of these officers.”

Mountain was present at the battle of Goojerat, but his brigade was not called into action, very much to his disappointment.

But as a soldier he had to sustain a yet greater trial. Having been appointed, with the chivalrous General of his division, to follow up the flying Sikhs after the battle of Goojerat, he hoped for a share of the glory almost certain to be reaped under such a leader.

But an unfortunate accident from a pistol-shot, which shattered his left hand, and threatened even more serious consequences, compelled him to give place to another, and seek repose. And we are sure every reader of the memoir will sympathise with this brave man denied thus a share in this wondrous and never to be forgotten pursuit. Sir Walter writing to him, says :

“ Be assured, I was by no means unmindful of one to whom I was so much indebted for his judicious and gallant leading of my left brigade at Chillianwallah, and again at Goojerat, and whose every

act whilst serving with me, had gained my most unqualified appro'bation. Next to yourself, no one regretted your absence so much

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' as I did, inasmuch as it deprived me of the services of one I could

place the most implicit confidence in under all circumstances : so none of your numerous acquaintance grieved more than myself for the accident which caused your absence.”'

Having been confirmed in the post of Adjutant-General, and received the warm congratulation of his friends, from Lord Dalhousie downwards, the rest of his days were spent till his death in 1854, in the vigorous and earnest discharge of the laborious duties attached to it. His service in the field was now all over, and in the remainder of his career, as well as of his correspondence as given by his biographer, nought very stirring is to be found. He continued however, the same conscientious officer and Christian gentleman to the last. But one extract from a letter of his we are in the present circumstances of this country, tempted to give :

“ The present state of things in Bengal particularly needs revi' sion. An officer perhaps after eighteen years' service in the com

missariat, or other civil department, on promotion, or on return ' from sick furlough, falls back on his regiment as Major, and com

mands it. All the captains but one, are either on furlough in Europe or on detached employ ; so are most of the senior subalterns,

of whom perhaps the adjutant and quarter-master, and three or 'four young ensigns only are with the regiment. The commanding 'officer knows nothing of regimental duty, or of teaching the young • officers their work,-is either harsh, or lax and careless; and the boys run wild. This is not at all an extreme, but a very common case, and it is only wonderful that the service gets on as well as it does. It is impossible that the sepoys can feel attachment to commanders who have not seen their regiments for fifteen or twenty yearsor to boys who have their duty to learn."

The italics are ours. Other quotations might be made to the same effect. It was a simple fact which is here stated, well known to the whole Anglo-Indian community, and intimately so to one holding the official position which Colonel Mountain did.

True, he was a Queen's officer, but that he was influenced in his statement by no unworthy jealous dislike to the Indian service, is sufficiently proved by such passages in his letters as the following:

“ John Company, whatever may be his faults, is infinitely better than Downing Street. If India were made over to the Colonial

Office, I should not think it worth three years' purchase, p. 297. • Take them all in all, the Directors have done their work well—the Company has many active and enterprising officers, p. 300."

Could such sowing, as that above described, fail in due time to bear a disastrous crop ? Could such an ulcer in our military system, exist and gather strength, and fester on without striking at the very life? Can we wonder at the unequalled calamities which have been the result ? Yet every one in Military Authority knew it, the Commander-in-Chief knew it, the Governor-General in Council, who granted every furlough and made every civil appointment, knew it; yet what did he ever do to reform such a state of things. And yet there were men, and intelligent men too, who strained them

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selves to find language to set forth the unequalled greatness of Lord Dalhousie, who could never open their mouths about him without trying to persuade us that he was a demi-god. Much lies at the door of poor old Sir Wm. Gomm; but did not pity for an enfeebled dying man interpose, the people of England would yet have a reckoning with Lord Dalhousie for the precious blood which has been shed, for the heaviest load of war which has ever befallen the families of our countrymen.

Editorial Note. We allow the concluding sentence to stand, under protest. It not only assumes, what may be very probable, but what has never been proved, that the mutinies have been caused by the inefficient officering of the regiments. It is not improbable that this may be the case, or rather that the causes which produced them might have been checked, had the system of withdrawing officers from their regiments not prevailed. But the attack on Lord Dalhousie is most gratuitous and unmerited. Lord Dalhousie had no discretionary power in regard to furloughs. As to Civil appointments, --considering the vast accession to our territory made during his rule,-he took away fewer men than probably any one else would have taken away, from the effective strength of the army ; and had the work done, to as great an extent as possible, by covenanted and uncovenanted civilians. We never represented Lord Dalhousie as a demi-god, but we are not ashamed of having lent our pages to a hearty and well-merited panegyric on his administration, of which we believe every statement is true to the letter.

Chow-Chow ; being selections from a Journal kept in India, Egypt,

and Syria. By the Viscountess Falkland, 2 vols. London, 1857.

It is not often that the reviewer has to do with an author, who is at once the daughter of a King, the sister of an Earl, the wife of a Viscount, and the cousin of our most gracious Queen-God bless her! Lady Falkland is all this; and in addition to all this, she is a clever, sensible woman, quite able to appreciate the sycophancy which has led some of our brethren in England to dilate on the surpassing advantages which her position in Bombay afforded her for the observation of " men and manners” in the east. Her ladyship must have been quite well aware that nearly the opposite was the fact; that almost every lady in Bombay had better opportunities than she had to observe both European and native habits of life and conversation, unless indeed she had chosen to adopt the Harun Al Raschid policy, and to mingle with society incognita. In point of fact, there is not one of the thousand books about India that contains less than this one does of the active life of either community; and what it does contain is almost entirely restricted to the retail of the staple legendary anecdotes, such as that relating to the matrimonial valuation of a civilian, and that relating to a lady who got “fixed” in her arm-chair in church, and had to obtain extraneous aid before her release could be " effectuated,” But Lady Falkland

SEPT., 1857,

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