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administration, it must not be supposed that it engrossed all his attention. The Governor of Bombay had much to do, and he did it well. He attended to everything himself, and conducted all the business of the Government with his usual zeal. Mr. Kaye judiciously sums up the character of his administration :
" It was not in the circumstances of the times that Malcolm's administration of Bombay should be a brilliant administration. It was permitted only that it should be an useful one. And that it was so he had an assured conviction. He had labored, though at the age of threescore, with the same unabating activity that had distinguished his early efforts in the public service ; the same energy, the same courage, the same integrity, the same steady persistence in right through evil report and good report, characterised all his proceedings ; but no man knew better than Malcolm himself how small a place in history is made for the best acts of the peaceful administrator, in proportion to that which is reserved for the achievements of the diplomatist and the soldier.
“ If Malcolm's government of Bombay had been what is generally understood as a popular"' one, it would have been little less than a marvel. A “popular" governor is a governor who pleases the European community of the settlement--a community mainly composed of the members of the public service. It is little to say that with the public services Lord William Bentinck was not “ popular” --he was absolutely detested by them. The same odious work of retrenchment which, in the discharge of his delegated duty, he had carried out in defiance of popular clamor in Bengal, Malcolin had superintended in Bombay. It is true that neither Bentinck nor Malcolm was more than the instrument of a necessary economy decreed by the Home Government; but a man who suddenly finds himself poorer by a few hundreds a year, or sees the road to lucrative promotion blocked up before him, is not in the best possible frame of mind to draw nice distinctions between the authority that directs, and the agency which inflicts, the penalty. The odium in such cases, is too likely to descend upon the Governor who gives effect to the instructions which he receives from the higher powers, at home: and it requires no common tact to escape the vicarious punishment. If any man could escape, it was Sir John Malcolm, and I believe the kindness of heart which moved him by personal explanations to soften the pain and annoyance which he was compelled ministerially to inflict, carried him through the perilous ordeal without making for himself any enemies.
“ There were some who, considering all the circumstances of the case, doubted the possibility of this. And when Malcolm's friends proposed to raise a subscription for the purpose of erecting a statue in his honor, Sir Lionel Smith, who, doubtless, had Malcolm's interest and good fame at heart, besought him to arrest what he thought so injudicious a movement. The old soldier alleged that the Governor, who at such a time persevered in the course of duty without favor or affection, must have made many enemies, who would rejoice in the failure of such a scheme, and that it was not in the nature of things that there should be any other result than failure. But there were friends of Sir John Malcolm who believed that there was sufficient good sense and good feeling in the Presidency to secure a wortly response to the proposal to do honor to such a man at the close of so illustrious a career of public service ; and the noble marble statue by Chantrey which now adorns the Town Hall of Bombay, is a monument of the soundness of their judgment.
“ Nor was this the only parting honor that was rendered to Sir John Malcolm. Addresses were presented to him by all classes of the community : by the natvies, of whom he had ever been the large-minded and catholic-spirited friend ; by the Eurasians, or people of mixed race, whose condition he had striven to elevate and improve ; by the English residents, who could appreciate his many fine qualities and estimate at its proper worth his half-century of distinguished service ; by the Asiatic Society, the members of which were eager to express their sense of his high“ literary qualifications, his constant and sedulous devotion to the cultivation of literature, and to the promotion of true knowledge, and the removing of error ;" and by the Christian Missionaries, who bore public testimony to the “ facilities which he had granted for the preaching of the Gospel in all parts of the Bombay territories, his honorable exertions in the abolition of Suttees, and to the kind manner in which he had countenanced Christian education.” He did not lay down the reins of office without the utterance by all classes of expressions of sincere regret at his departure, and many earnest prayers for his continued happiness and prosperity.”
And now Sir John Malcolm's Indian work was done. Jack had been “at the bottom” of a very large amount of the good that was done in the course of the consolidation of our Indian empire. Proceeding overland he reached England in February 1831, and found himself in the heat of the controversy respecting Parliamentary Reform. Mainly with the view of advancing Indian interests, he entered Parliament as member for the borough of Launceston in Cornwall, and distinguished himself considerably by his speeches against the Reform bill. On the same subject he wrote and published a pamphlet, which does not seem to have been much regarded. In fact the cause which he advocated was unpopular, and the view which he took of it was one which could not command the sympathies even of those who were at one with him on the general question. His great object was to retain the “close” and “rotten” boroughs, that they might afford seats to men who should be able to represent Indian interests in the House of Commons --an object unquestionably desirable, whatever may be thought of the means by which he proposed that it should be compassed.
On a dissolution of Parliament, Sir John Malcolm offered himself as a candidate for the representation of the Dumfries boronghs. He was unsuccessful in his canvass, but gained "golden opinions from all classes of men.” A public dinner was given to him and his brothers, Sir James and Sir Pulteney Malcolm, by the gentlemen of Eskedale and Ewesdale, and probably never were the echoes of Langholm taxed to the same extent as when they were called to give back the cheers that greeted the “ three Knights of Eskedale.” Şir John was not returned to Parliament; and spent his time in superintending the repairs and additions on a house that he had bought at Warfield in Berkshire, and in various literary avocations.
But a great struggle was going on; in which Malcolm was more in his place than in contending against Parliamentary Reform. The conimercial monopoly of the Company was threatened ;-that Company whose salt he had eaten for more than half a century; and Malcolm was not the man to with. hold whatever powers or influence he possessed, when these could be turned to account in the service of his old masters. The Queen's Government gave way to the pressure from without, so far as to propose to the Court of Directors a new charter, which was to preserve to the Company the territorial Government of India, but to deprive it of all commercial privilges. A Special Court of Proprietors was called for the 15th of April 1833, for the consideration of the ministerial proposal ; and it was imposed on Malcolm, as one of the most influential of the Proprietors, to propose resolutions, signifying the acceptance of the ministerial measure on certain conditions. Suffering under a severe attack of influenza, he went to the Court, spoke for two hours, manfully and eloquently; then sat down, and fainted away. The Court being adjourned from day to day, Malcolm was for several days in his place, but took little part in the proceedings. Had Lady Malcolm been in London, it is probable, that she might have won him to that rest which he so much needed; but she was at Hastings, and it was not till the 28th of the month that he consented to quit what he considered to be the post of duty, and to join her there. In good spirits at the thought of meeting his wife and daughters, he left his home in the morning, but when the carriage stopped at the coach-office in Charing Cross, his servant opened the door and found him lying insensible on the bottom of the carriage. For some days the flame flickered in the socket; it flared up a little towards the middle of May ; but on the 30th of that month it went out altogether. The warm heart ceased to beat, those inexhaustible spirits were frozen at the spring. Thus lived, and thus died, Major General Sir John Malcolm, G. C. B., a man who had few equals in his day—a great and good man.
ART. IV.-A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue terms, and of
useful words occurring in official documents, relating to the administration of the Gorernment of British India, from the Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Uriya, Marathi, Guzarathi, Telugu, Karnata, Tamil, Malayalam, and other languages. By H. H. Wilson, M. A. F. R. S.
is almost as difficult a task to review, as it is to write,
a Glossary. But it is much more difficult than usual when we have a work before us, which from its very title page seems to touch, if not to embrace, any or all of the departments by which any district or all the districts of British India are supervised. The very announcement at the head of the article suggests everything that is wide and indefinite. The term judicial comprises the courts with their establishments, the police with their duties, and the laws with their operation. The term revenue may bring us at any moment in contact with the Sudder Board, or with a jungly cultivator in the backwoods, dibbling a little rice into a patch of ground, which he has previously burnt and cleared. Our horizon is extended still further by the admission of such words as 'useful and
official.' And in how many cases may not a word of commonest use, bear various meanings, or be still a stock subject for discussion as to its real or precise intent? What a wide field for contention and disquisition is not suggested by the simple word Zemindar!
It must be clear that to attempt regularly to review a work of this kind in all its branches, would demand an experience, a depth of learning, and an amount of philological accuracy, such as are possessed by the compiler alone. To praise Cicero Cicerone laudatore opus est. It would be impertinent in us to attempt any general survey of Mr. Wilson's latest contribution to the stock of oriental literature, which already owes so much to him : and we can therefore only promise to give such a notice of this work, as may explain the principles on which it was compiled, the aid given or refused to Mr. Wilson in the compilation, and his manner of dealing with some of the most familiar as well as the most recondite terms which puzzle the Indian tyro, and keep the English philanthropist at bay. In doing this we do not forget that a cursory notice of the Glossary has already appeared in No. xxxvii. of this Review. But that notice was given of the original two volumes, as they appeared with all the imperfections which the carelessness of some correspondents, and the blundering laboriousness of others, had cast upon their head. Moreover, the very defects there complained of, have been now removed. The two volumes have been reduced to a quarto of reasonable size. Every word is written in some one native dialect, besides English, in use in the north, south, or central part of the Indian peninsula, as the case may be, and on some instances in two or three. The native words in the English character are spelt under the orthographical system of Sir William Jones, with some few modifications, consonants and vowels being represented by precisely the same letters and sounds in the English language as they are in the oriental. But this plan, while it is the only one that ensures accuracy and satisfies the Pundits of all nations, being obviously calculated to perplex the unlearned, Mr. Wilson has grouped round the correct form, all the numerous conceptions and metamorphoses which an unlucky phrase has been compelled to undergo at the hands of ignorant, careless, and dull-eared officials. Again, the Glossary has been furnished with an index, of at least 26,000 words, in which the same word is repeated in its different disguises and malformations, some of which appear to have caused Mr. Wilson the most poignant anguish, as we shall have occasion to shew hereafter. The result of this additional labour is, that no person can well have any difficulty in discovering the word he is in search of, though his oriental attainments be of the most elementary description. And when we add that the type is elear, the paper excellent, and the price moderate, it will at once be apparent that the task of reviewing the Glossary has to us been one rather of pleasure than of toil.
The original plan under which the compilation was attempted, is as follows. The Court of Directors, with their usual praiseworthy desire to facilitate the acquirement of the eastern languages by their servants, decreed, about the end of the year 1842, that a glossary of words in current use in different parts of India, should be compiled. To this end a rough glossary, already in existence at the India House, was reprinted with an abundant blank space after each word, and a considerable number of copies were sent out from time to time to the various presidencies of India. We can remember their arrival in Calcutta during the year 1844. Immediately on their receipt, the local Government acted on that traditionary policy, which has so often marred its best intentions, and which has led to no one result except the accumulation of crude remarks and illdigested correspondence. For, one of the traditions of Government, rarely departed from, is, or used to be, that without the issue of a circular, calling for opinions,' nothing whatever can be done. If the criminal code is to be made more or less stringent, if the law of distraint is to be relaxed, if additional