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Those religious People of Scotland that fall in this Cause, we cannot but pity and mourn for them; and we

h pray all good men may do so too. Indeed there is at this time a very great distraction, and mighty workings of God upon the hearts of divers, both Ministers and People; much of it tending to the justification of your Cause. And although some are

as bitter and as bad as ever ; making it their business to shuffle hypocritically with their consciences and the Covenant, to make it seem' lawful to join with Malignants, which now they do, — as well they might long before, having taken in the Head Malignant, of them : yet truly others are startled at it; and some have been constrained by the work of God upon their consciences, to make sad and solemn accusations of themselves, and lamentations in the face of their Supreme Authority; charging themselves as guilty of the blood shed in this War, by having a hand in the Treaty at Breda, and by bringing the King in amongst them. This lately did a Lord of the Session; and withdrew from the Committee of Estates.' And lately Mr. James Livingston, a man as highly esteemed as any for piety and learning, who was a Commissioner for the Kirk at the said Treaty, -charged himself with the guilt of the blood of this War, before their Assembly; and withdrew from them, and is retired to his own house.

It will be very necessary, to encourage victuallers to come to us, that

you

take off Customs and Excise from all things brought hither for the use of the Army. I beg your prayers; and rest,

Your humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.*

This then is the end of Ker's fighting project; a very mad one, at this state of the business. The Remonstrance continued

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long to be the symbol of the Extreme-Covenant or Whiggamore Party among the Scots ; but its practical operation ceased here. Ker lies lamed, dangerously wounded; and, I think, will fight no

Strahan and some others, voted traitorous by the native Authorities, went openly over to Cromwell ;-Strahan soon after died. As for the Western Army, it straightway dispersed itself; part towards Stirling and the Authorities; the much greater part to their civil callings again, wishing they had never quitted them.

This miscarriage of affairs in the West by a few unhappy men,' says Baillie, 'put us all under the foot of the Enemy. They presently ran over all the country; destroying cattle and crops; putting Glasgow and all other places under grievous contribu• tions. This makes me,' for my part, stick at Perth ; not daring "to go where the Enemy is master, as he now is of all Scotland s south of the Forth.'1

It only remains to be added, that the two Extreme Parties being broken, the Middle or Official one rose supreme, and widened its borders by the admission, as Oliver anticipated, of the Malignants almost all ;' a set of Public Resolutions' so-called being passed in the Scotch Parliament to that end, and ultimately got carried through the Kirk Assembly too. Official majority of • Resolutioners,' with a zealous party of ‘Remonstrants,' who are also called “Protesters :' in Kirk and State, these long continue to afflict and worry one another, sad fruit of a Covenanted Charles Stuart; but shall not farther concern us here. It is a great comfort to the Lord General that he has now mainly real Malignants for enemies in this country; and so can smite without reluctance. Unhappy Resolutioners, if they could subdue Cromwell, what would become of them at the hands of their own Malignants ! They have admitted the Chief Malignant, in whom all Malignity does centre,' into their bosom ; and have an Incarnate Solecism presiding over them. Satisfactorily descended from Elizabeth Muir of Caldwell, but in all other respects most unsatisfactory!

The · Lord of the Session,' who felt startled at this condition of things, and ‘withdrew from it, I take to have been Sir James Hope of Craighall,2 of whom, and whose scruples, and the censures they got, there is frequent mention in these months. But

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1 iii. 125 (date, 2 January, 1650-1). · Balfour, iv. 173, 235.

the Laird of Swinton, another of the same, went still farther in the same course ; and indeed, soon after this defeat of Ker, went openly over to Cromwell. There is very great distraction, there are mighty workings upon the hearts of divers.' Mr. James Livingston,' the Minister of Ancrum, has left a curious Life of himself :—he is still represented by a distinguished family in America.

LETTER CXLI.

The next affair is that of Edinburgh Castle. Our Derbyshire miners found the rock very hard, and made small way in it: but now the Lord General has got his batteries ready ; and, on Thursday 12th December, after three months blockade, salutes the place with his 'guns and mortars,' and the following set of Summonses ; which prove effectual.

For the Governor of Edinburgh Castle : These.

SIR,

Edinburgh, 12th December, 1650. We being now resolved, by God's assistance, to make use of such means as He hath

put into our hands towards the reducing of Edinburgh Castle, I thought fit to send you this Summons.

What the grounds of our proceedings have been, and what our desires and aims in relation to the glory of God and the common Interest of His People, we have often expressed in our Papers tendered to public view. To which though credit hitherto hath not been given by men, yet the Lord hath been pleased to bear a gracious and favourable testimony; and hath not only kept us constant to our profession, and in our affections to such as fear the Lord in this Nation, but hath unmasked others from their pretences, -as appears by the present transactions at St. John

ston.) Let the Lord dispose your resolutions as seemeth good to Him: my sense of duty presseth me, for the ends aforesaid, and to avoid the effusion of more blood, To demand the rendering of this place to me upon fit conditions. To which expecting your answer this day, I rest,

Sir, your servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.

The Governor's Answer to my Lord General's Letter is this :

For his Excellency the General of the English Forces.

“Edinburgh, 12th December, 1650. “My LORD, -I am intrusted by the Estates of Scotland with “ this place ; and being sworn not to deliver it to any without “ their warrant, I have no power to dispose thereof by myself. “ I do therefore desire the space of ten days, wherein I may conveniently acquaint the said Estates, and receive their answer. And for this effect, your safe-conduct for them employed in the

message. Upon the receipt of their answer, you shall have the “resolution of,—my Lord, your most humble servant,

« W. DUNDAS."

The Lord General's Reply to Governor Walter Dundas :

LETTER CXLII.

For the Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh.
SIR,

Edinburgh, 12th December, 1650.

It concerns not me to know your obligations to those that trust you. I make no question of the apprehensions you have of your abilities to resist those impres

1 Readmission of the Malignants almost all;" Earl of Calendar, Duke

6 of Hamilton, &c. (Balfour, iv. 179-203); by the Parliament at Perth,— at • St. Johnston,' as the old name is.

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sions which shall be made upon you,' are the natural and equitable rules of all men's judgments and consciences in your condition ;-except you had taken an oath beyond a possibility. I leave that to your consideration ; and shall not seek to contest with your thoughts: only I think it may become me to let you know, You may have honourable terms for yourself and those with you; and both yourself and soldiers have satisfaction to all your reasonable desires ; and those that have other employments, liberty and protection in the exercise of them.

But to deal plainly with you, I will not give liberty to you to consult your Committee of Estates; because I hear, those that are honest amongst them enjoy not satisfaction, and the rest are now discovered to seek another Interest than they have formerly pretended to. And if you

desire to be informed of this, you may, by them you dare trust, at a nearer distance than St. Johnston. Expecting your present answer, I rest,

Sir, your servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.

The Governor's Reply, No. 2, arrives on the morrow, Friday :

For his Esccellency the Lord General of the English

Forces in Scotland.

“ Edinburgh Castle, 13th December, 1650. “My LORD, -It much concerneth me (considering my obligations) to be found faithful in the trust committed to me. And “ therefore, in the fear of the living God, and of His great Name “called upon in the accepting of my trust, I do again press the “ liberty of acquainting the Estates. The time is but short; and I do expect it as answerable to your profession of affection to

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