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1650) finding no 'reasonable good leisure to unfold himself farther, in the way of paper and ink, to these men. There remain other ways; the way of cannon-batteries, and Derbyshire miners. It is likely his Excellency will subdue the bodies of these men ; and the unconquerable mind will then follow if it can.


Whereas it hath pleased God, by His gracious providence and goodness, to put the City of Edinburgh and the Town of Leith under my power: And although I have put forth several Proclamations, since my coming into this Country, to the like effect with this present : Yet for further satisfaction to all those whom it may concern, I do hereby again publish and declare,

That all the Inhabitants of the country, not now being or continuing in arms, shall have free leave and liberty to come to the Army, and to the City and Town aforesaid, with their cattle, corn, horse, or other commodities or goods whatsoever ; and shall there have free and open markets for the same; and shall be protected in their persons and goods, in coming and returning as aforesaid, from any injury or violence of the Soldiery under my command; and shall also be protected in their respective houses. And the Citizens and Inhabitants of the said City and Town shall and hereby likewise havel free leave to vend and sell their wares and commodities; and shall be protected from the plunder and violence of the Soldiers.

1 Grammar irremediable !

And I do hereby require all Officers and Soldiers of the Army under my command, To take due notice hereof, and to yield obedience hereto. As they will answer the contrary at their utmost peril.

Given under my hand at Edinburgh, the 14th of September, 1650.


To be proclaimed in Leith and Edinburgh, by sound of trumpet and beat of drum.*

Listen and be reassured, ye ancient Populations, though your Clergy sit obstinate on their Castle-rock, and your Stuart King has vanished !- While this comfortable Oyez-oyez goes sounding through the ancient streets, my Lord General is himself just getting on march again ; as the next Letter will testify.


The Lord General, leaving the Clergy to meditate his Queries in the seclusion of their Castle-rock, sets off westward, on the second day after, to see whether he cannot at once dislodge the Governing Committee-men and Covenanted King; and get possession of Stirling, where they are busily endeavouring to rally. This, he finds, will not answer, for the moment.

* King's Pamphlets, small 4to, no. 479, art. 16 ( The Lord-General Cromwell his march to Stirling: being a Diary of' &c. Published by Authority').

To the Right Honourable the Lord President of the

Council of State: These.'

Edinburgh, 25th September, 1650.

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On Saturday the 14th instant, we marched six miles towards Stirling; and, by reason of the badness of the ways, were forced to send back two pieces of our greatest artillery. The day following, we marched to Linlithgow, not being able to go farther by reason of much rain that fell that day. On the 16th, we marched to Falkirk; and the next day following, within cannon-shot of Stirling ;—where, upon Wednesday the 18th, our Army was drawn forth, and all things in readiness to storm the Town.

But finding the work very difficult; they having in the Town Two-thousand horse and more foot; and the place standing upon a river not navigable for shipping to relieve the same, so that we could not, with safety, make it a Garrison, if God should have given it into our hands :upon this, and other considerations, it was not thought a fit time to storm. But such was the unanimous resolution and courage both of our Officers and Soldiers, that greater could not be (as to outward appearance) in men,

On Thursday the 19th, we returned from thence to Linlithgow; and at night we were informed that, at Stirling, they shot off their great guns for joy their King was come thither. On Friday the 20th, three Irish soldiers came from them to us; to whom we gave entertainment in the Army; they say, Great fears possessed the soldiers when they expected us to storm. That they know not whether old Leven be their General or not, the report being various; but that Sir John Browne, a Colonel of their Army, was laid aside. That they are endeavouring to raise


all the Forces they can, in the North ; that many of the soldiers, since our victory, are offended at their Ministers; that Colonel Gilbert Ker and Colonel Strahan are gone with shattered forces to Glasgow, to levy soldiers there. As yet we hear not of any of the old Cavaliers being entertained as Officers among them; the expectation of' which

' occasions differences betwixt their Ministers and the Officers of the Army.

The same day, we came to Edinburgh again. Where we abide without disturbance; saving that about ten at night, and before day in the morning, they sometimes fire three or four great guns at us; and if any of our men come within' musket-shot, they fire at them from the Castle. But, blessed be God, they have done us no harm, except one soldier shot (but not to the danger of his life), that I can be informed of. There are some few of the inhabitants of Edinburgh returned home; who, perceiving our civility, and our' paying for what we receive of them, repent their departure ; open their shops, and bring provisions to the market. It's reported they have in the Castle provisions for fifteen months; some say, for a longer time. Generally the poor acknowledge that our carriage to them is better than that of their own Army; and that had they who are gone away known so much, they would have stayed at home. They say, one chief reason wherefore so many are gone was, They feared we would have imposed upon them some oath wherewith they could not have dispensed.

I am in great hopes, through God's mercy, we shall be able this Winter to give the People such an understanding of the justness of our Cause, and our desires for the just liberties of the People, that the better sort of them will be satisfied therewith ; although, I must confess, hitherto they continue obstinate. I thought I should have found in Scotland a conscientious People, and a barren country : about Edinburgh, it is as fertile for corn as any part of England; but the People generally are so' given to the most impudent lying, and frequent swearing, as is incredible to be believed.

I rest,

Your Lordship's most humble servant,'



What to do with Scotland, in these mixed circumstances, is a question. We have friends among them, a distinct coincidence with them in the great heart of their National Purpose, could they understand us aright; and we have all degrees of enemies among them, up to the bitterest figure of Malignancy itself. What to do? For one thing, Edinburgh Castle ought to be reduced. • We have put forces into Linlithgow, and our Train is

lodged in Leith,' Lesley's old citadel there; "the wet being so 'great that we cannot march with our Train.' Do we try Edinburgh Castle with a few responsive shots from the Calton Hill; or from what point? My Scotch Antiquarian friends have not informed me. We decide on reducing it by mines.

Sunday, 29th September, 1650. Resolution being taken for 'the springing of mines in order to the reducing of Edinburgh • Castle ; and our men beginning their galleries last night, the

Enemy fired five pieces of ordnance, with several volleys of shot, * from the Castle ; but did no execution. We hope this work will take effect; notwithstanding the height, rockiness, and

strength of the place.- His Excellency with his Officers met * this day in the High Church of Edinburgh, forenoon and after'noon; where was a great concourse of people.' Mr. Stapylton, who did the Hursley Marriage-treaty, and is otherwise transiently known to mankind, -he, as was above intimated, occupies the pulpit there; the Scots Clergy still sitting sulky in their Castle, with Derby miners now operating on them. “Many Scots ex


• Newspapers (in Parliamentary History, xix. 404).

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