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posture : That six regiments of horse, and three regiments and a half of foot should march in the van; and that the Major-General, the Lieutenant-General of the horse, an the Commissary-General," and Colonel Monk to command the brigade of foot, should lead on the business; and that Colonel Pride's brigade, Colonel Overton's brigade, and the remaining two regiments of horse should bring up the cannon and rear. The time of falling-on to be by break of day:—but through some delays it proved not to be so; not' till six o'clock in the morning.

The Enemy's word was, The Covenant ; which it had been for divers days. Ours, The Lord of Hosts. The Major-General, Lieutenant-General Fleetwood, and Commissary-General Whalley, and Colonel Twistleton, gave the onset ; the Enemy being in a very good posture to receive them, having the advantage of their cannon and foot against our horse. Before our foot could come up, the Enemy made a gallant resistance, and there was a very hot dispute at sword's point between our horse and theirs. Our first foot, after they had discharged their duty (being overpowered with the Enemy), received some repulse, which they soon recovered. For my own regiment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Goffe and my Major, White, did come seasonably in; and, at the push of pike, did repel the stoutest regiment the Enemy had there, merely with the courage the Lord was pleased to give. Which proved a great amazement to the residue of their foot; this being the first action between the foot. The horse in the meantime did, with a great deal of courage and spirit, beat back all oppositions; charging through the bodies of the Enemy's horse, and of their foot; who were, after the first repulse given, made by the Lord of Hosts as stubble to their swords. — Indeed, I believe I may speak it without partiality: both your chief Commanders and others in their several places, and soldiers also, were acted with as much courage as ever hath been seen in any

1 Lambert, Fleetwood, Whalley.

action since this War. I know they look not to be named; and there

; fore I forbear particulars.

The best of the Enemy's horse being broken through and through in less than an hour's dispute, their whole Army being put into confusion, it became a total rout; our men having the chase and execution of them ' near eight miles. We believe that upon the place and near about it were about Three - thousand slain. Prisoners taken : of their officers, you have this enclosed List; of private soldiers near Ten-thousand. The whole baggage and train taken, wherein was good store of match, powder and bullet; all their artillery, great and small, - thirty guns. We are confident they have left behind them not less than Fifteen-thousand arms, I have already brought in to me near Two-hundred colours, which I herewith send you. What officers of theirs of quality are killed, we yet cannot learn ; but yet surely divers are: and many men of quality are mortally wounded, as Colonel Lumsden, the Lord Libberton and others. And, that which is no small addition, I do not believe we have lost twenty men. Not one Commission Officer slain as I hear of, save one Cornet; and Major Rooksby, since dead of his wounds; and not many mortally wounded :- Colonel Whalley only

I actuated,' as we now write it.

? They hung long in Westminster Hall; beside the Preston ones, and still others that came. Colonel Pride has been heard to wish, and almost to hope, That the Lawyers' gowns might all be hung up beside the Scots çolours yet,- and the Lawyers' selves, except some very small and most select needful remnant, be ordered peremptorily to disappear from those localities, and seek an honest trade elsewhere! (Walker's History of Independency.)

cut in the handwrist, and his horse (twice shot) killed under him; but he well recovered another horse, and went on in the chase.

:

Thus you have the prospect of one of the most signal mercies God hath done for England and His people, this War:—and now may it please you to give me the leave of a few words. It is easy to say, The Lord hath done this. It would do you good to see and hear our poor foot to go up and down making their boast of God. But, Sir, it's in your hands, and by these eminent mercies God puts it more into your hands, To give glory to Him; to improve your power, and His blessings, to His praise. We that serve you beg of you not to own us, - but God alone. We pray you own His people more and more; for they are the chariots and horsemen of Israel. Disown yourselves;- but own your Authority; and improve it to curb the proud and the insolent, such as would disturb the tranquillity of England, though under what specious pretences soever. Relieve the oppressed, hear the groans of

poor prisoners in England. Be pleased to reform the abuses of all professions :- and if there be any one that makes many poor to make a few rich,' that suits not a Commonwealth. If He that strengthens your servants to fight, please to give you hearts to set upon these things, in order to His glory, and the glory of your Commonwealth, — then' besides the benefit England shall feel thereby, you shall shine forth to other Nations, who shall emulate the glory of such a pattern, and through the power of God turn in to the like!

These are our desires. And that you may have liberty

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• Many of them had a peek at Lawyers generally' (says learned Bulstrode in these months,-appealing to posterity, almost with tears in his big

dull eyes !).

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and opportunity to do these things, and not be hindered, we have been and shall be (by God's assistance) willing to venture our lives ; —and will not desire you should be precipitated by importunities, from your care of safety and preservation ; but that the doing of these good things may have their place amongst those which concern wellbeing, and so be wrought in their time and order.

Since we came in Scotland, it hath been our desire and longing to have avoided blood in this business ; by reason that God hath a people here fearing His name, though deceived. And to that end have we offered much love unto such, in the bowels of Christ; and concerning the truth of our hearts therein, have we appealed unto the Lord. The Ministers of Scotland have hindered the passage of these things to the hearts of those to whom we intended them. And now we hear, that not only the deceived people, but some of the Ministers are also fallen in this Battle. This is the great hand of the Lord, and worthy of the consideration of all those who take into their hands the instruments of a foolish shepherd, -to wit, meddling with worldly policies, and mixtures of earthly power, to set up that which they call the Kingdom of Christ, which is neither it, nor, if it were it, would such means be found effectual to that end,—and neglect, or trust not to, the Word of God, the sword of the Spirit; which is alone powerful and able for the setting up of that Kingdom; and, when trusted to, will be found effectually able to that end, and will also do it! This is humbly offered for their sakes who have lately too much turned aside: that they might return again to preach Jesus Christ, according to the simplicity of the Gospel ;— and

* We as yet struggle for being ; which is preliminary, and still more essential.

then no doubt they will discern and find your protection and encouragement.

Beseeching you to pardon this length, I humbly take leave; and rest,

Sir,
Your most obedient servant,

Oliver CROMWELL.*

Industrious dull Bulstrode, coming home from the Council of State towards Chelsea on Saturday afternoon, is accosted on the streets, 'near Charing Cross,' by a dusty individual, who declares himself bearer of this Letter from my Lord General ; and imparts a rapid outline of the probable contents to Bulstrode's mind, which naturally kindles with a certain slow solid satisfaction on receipt thereof.

LETTER CXXVIII.

LETTER CXXVI., for Sir Arthur, did not go on Monday night; and finds now an unexpected conveyance !-Brand, Historian of Newcastle, got sight of that Letter, and of this new one enclosing it, in the hands of an old Steward of the Haselrigs, some halfcentury ago; and happily took copies. Letter CXXVI. was autograph, 'folded up hastily before the ink was quite dry; sealed with red wax:' of this there is nothing autograph but the signature; and the sealing-wax is black.

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For the Honourable Sir Arthur Haselrig, at Newcastle or

elsewhere : These. Haste, haste.

SIR,

Dunbar, 4th September, 1650.

You will see by my Enclosed, of the 2d of this month, which was the evening before the Fight, the

• Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, pp. 87-91).
1 Whitlocke (2d edition), p. 470 (7 Sept.).

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