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I have discussed this point at con- vantageously distributed, but those enusiderable length because an educated merated show how little need there is to common people is the hope of a re- be frightened because money insists on public; and when a nation can point filling our treasuries and demanding to to 60,000,000 educated freemen and say, be used. “ These are my forts and ramparts and The question, then, before the Amerwalls," it has greater strength and pros- ican people to-day is simply, “What perity and security than can be assured tariff will tend to develop and build up by all the armies Germany or France or the United States, protect its investments, England can equip for war. There are whether of labor or capital, and thus bring doubtless many other avenues through to all classes the greatest prosperity.” which an immense surplus could be ad

M. W. Hazen.

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The very

OSSIBLY no State in markets against the European produc-
the Union is so deeply tions. It followed that as our productions
interested in a pro- increased, the prices of Spanish raisins
tective tariff as Cal- decreased.

The fact is that so long as there was large variety of Cal- no home competition the American people ifornia products, add- were compelled to pay Spanish prices for ed to the fact that their raisins; but when California enmost of them are tered the market, the prices of raisins depeculiar to that State clined, and especially so after it became and are produced no- known that California produced a fine where else in the article, and thus became a positive and

United States, ren- active competitor. ders a protective tariff a necessity. The It is an axiom in business, hardly orchards and vineyards are especially worth repeating here, that the price of a affected by it. For instance, raisins, figs commodity is regulated by supply and and olives are produced in no other State demand. We increased the supply within the American Union, while oranges, out largely increasing the demand; and lemons and prunes are also exclusive although the foreign producer, and in California products, if Florida is ex- some instances the New York importers, cepted. The raisin industry is now a talked down the quality of our raisins, large and flourishing one.

yet they have held their own in the home It is estimated the amount of capital market, and in this respect California, as now invested in California in that busi- well as the rest of the country, has been ness alone exceeds ten million dollars. benefited. The production of raisins in quantities It was not at first believed that raisins was commenced in 1880, and California could be successfully produced in the soon became a competitor in American United States, because of the difference 686 EFFECT OF FREE TRADE ON PACIFIC COAST INDUSTRIES.


in the price of labor here and in Malaga. dangerous piece of property to hold, if The California producer pays four times the market value of the product is conthe amount for labor that is paid in Spain; stantly menaced by national legislation. yet the advantage of climate, the richness The questions of supply and demand, of our soil, the abundance of our crops, good or inferior crops, should be the added to the two cents a pound tariff, only ones that imperil the producer. made it possible for our producers to com- Nothing in the world but the abunpete with foreigners in the same line. dance and quality of our production has

We submit, then, that the American sustained this industry with the present people are deeply interested in maintain- tariff duties. ing this and other industries peculiar to The next attack made upon the Calithe Pacific Coast; for the reason, if an fornia fruit-raiser in the Mills Bill was American competitor is in the field there upon prunes. These were placed upon is home competition, which, like a home the free list, although finally restored by market, is beneficial both to producer and vote of the House to the old rate. But

the attack was made, and the injury The Mills Bill utterly disregards this done. The menace was given, and the self-evident truth, and cuts down the tariff industry imperiled. Like raisins, the on raisins 25 per cent., or one-half a cent production of prunes is confined to the a pound.

Pacific Slope. There are

over forty In 1887, there was imported into the thousand acres of prunes now planted in United States 40,660,603 pounds of raisins, California. valued at $2,297,469, on which a duty was The peculiarity of our soil and climate collected amounting to $813,212. Assum- is eminently adapted to prune cultivaing that next year there shall be imported tion. The American people consumed an equal amount of raisins, there would in 1887, of imported prunes, 70,80S, 653 be a decrease in the duties of only about pounds. Every pound of these could be $200,000. Now, in order to lower the and ought to be raised on the Pacifie surplus in the National Treasury $200,- coast. But like all new and struggling 000, the Mills Bill imperils ten millions industries, this requires the fostering of dollars of American capital, throws care of the government. It has only thousands of American people out of em- been a few years, since California beployment, and destroys a new and valu- came an active competitor in the sale of able industry; for when a business does prunes in the American markets. Note not pay to the party engaged in it, it is the result: prunes have decreased in practically destroyed.

value just as California has increased in I am aware that it may be claimed production; and this in the face of a one that a reduction of one half a cent a cent a pound duty, which is now impound on raisins is very slight, but it is posed by law. It is an undoubted adjust the difference between success and vantage to the whole nation, for us to failure. It does not begin to make the produce what we consume. difference that actually exists between By the Mills Bill, figs are placed upon the expense of producing raisins in Cali- the free list, which is another one of our fornia and in Malaga.

infant industries. Figs have hitherto It must also be noted by our friends borne a tariff of two cents a pound, and in the East that the transportation from the total duty on figs last year collected California to New York is more than by our government was only $175,057, double what it is from any Spanish port an amount that could make no apprecito New York, and we are thus again able effect upon the surplus in the Naplaced at a disadvantage. And in this tional Treasury. But with California it connection, I am reminded that a vine- was about all of the profits, and eren yard is a thing of slow growth; that it more than there was in the business; for must be planted, pruned and cultivated California figs were just come into the at least four years before it produces any- market, and very soon would have thing, and that it is not in full bearing driven Smyrna figs out of it, by reason until it is eight or ten years old; and of quality, abundance and price of the thus it becomes a very expensive and home production. California is so re

mote from the seat of government, small in a star-chamber proceeding, and we in population, that its voice could not were not heard. Note the result: olive be heard, and was not heard in free trade oil was placed upon the free list. It circles in Washington; indeed, no oppor- certainly does not seem to us that it was tunity was given our people to be heard. necessary to destroy an important inWe were commanded to remain silent dustry simply for the purpose of cutting while our property was destroyed, our down the surplus $163,000. But, be that homes desolated and our laborers turned as it may, it was done; and the people of out of employment.

California as producers, and the AmeriThe right of petition was, in effect, can people as consumers, will be the denied us, for our petitions were unheard, sufferers. and unheeded.

There are a few date trees in CaliforIn this connection it may be said, that nia, very few, indeed, and the amount the most striking and inexcusable blow of tariff duties was only one cent a given to California industries was in pound upon dates; yet dates were also relation to olive oil. California stands placed upon the free list. So with curalone among the American States as a rants, so with beans, beeswax, salt, lumproducer of olive trees. For thriftiness ber, copper, quicksilver, feathers, fresh of growth and abundance of fruitage, vegetables, etc. no place in the world, not even Italy, While California is one of the largest can begin to equal California. It is the producers of wool of any State in the home of the olive. To-day there are Union, yet wool is produced in nearly more than thirty-five thousand acres of all of the Northern States. The Mills olive trees planted in our State, and Bill affects all wool-men alike. But it the

acreage is increasing at the rate may be noted in this connection that of twenty-five per cent. a year. We the Pacific States were peculiarly the have, at a vast expense, imported the object of attack. Whether this arose best and rarest varieties of that fruit; from the reason that ours is looked upon but the tree produces but little or no as a Republican community, and like fruit until it reaches the age of from six Dakota, out of the Union, or whether to twelve years.

our interests were so insignificant we As is well known, California orchards were forgotten, is a matter which the require cultivation, at least, two to four Democratic majority in the House of times a year; so the expense of maintain- Representatives can alone answer. ing an olive orchard, or, indeed, any In conclusion, let me add, the average other orchard, is very great, especially price of unskilled farm-labor in Califorduring the non-productive period of its nia is one dollar a day and board; in existence. Within the last four years the Southern and Democratic States, we have commenced to make olive oil- farm labor is from $8 to $12 and $14 a in a small way, it is true, but still we month. In California, planting and made it, and made the best. Very little much of our cultivation is done in winhad reached the Eastern market, yet not ter; thus work continues the year less than five millions of dollars have around. In harvest, farm laborers get been invested in California in this pecu- $2.50 a day. In the South the leading liar and most interesting industry, and industries are not affected by the Mills nearly all of it is invested by people of Bill; here they are destroyed. Why is small means.

this? Will our Democratic friends anin 1887, the government collected in swer, and will they let us know what duties from imported olive oil, $163,648, the Mills Bill means, if it does not mean the duty being 25 per cent. ad valorem. Free-Trade? When articles are placed It would seem that so insignificant a sum on the free list, it is certainly free trade would not have tempted the reformers as to those articles, and many of our to strike it from the list of protected ar- leading products are so placed. ticles, but the tariff tinkers were engaged

M. M. Estee.

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All roads lead from New York, especially on a hot sultry day in July, with the thermometer at 97° in the shade, as it was on the afternoon when our three artist friends found themselves on the deck of a Sound steamer, brightly anticipating a two months' trip through the valley of the Connecticut to the Green Mountain State, Lake George and beyond. They had agreed to meet at the metropolis from afar, to share in the pleasures of a vacation in the mountains, which was to result in rest, recreation and sketches; and, although men in middle life, were looking forward with all the ardor and much of the impatience of schoolboys to the coming days, for the consummation of the hopes and anticipations of many months.

The sail up the Sound, and up the Connecticut river to Hartford, supplemented by a run by rail along the banks of that beautiful stream to Springfield and beyond, was a delightful prelude to the pleasures of a drive through the upper valley, which was to begin at Northampton and end whenever and wherever fancy dictated.

Stopping at Mount Holyoke, in order to take a bird's-eye view of the promised land before they en

tered upon it, we find them, upon the second day of their travels, standing in the shadow of Mount Tom, on the platform of the little station of that name, where the train had left them a few moments before. The

Vol. VIII.-44

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