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Washington's letters and papers, while Kegs,” “To a Recreant American," etc.; of occupying a comparatively small space in Josiah Quincy, Jr.—“The Duty of Ameriour literature, will yet always bear evidence cans, " “ The Consequences of Taste," etc.; to his greatness of character, and reflect the the poems of Philip Freneau; the letters of supreme qualities of the personality of the Abigail Adams; and the papers of John First President of the American Republic. Jay. The literary merits of his state papers, as well Volume IV. of this work must be reserved as their purity of thought and embodiments for a future review. The importance of the of wise, statesman-like views, that infinitely time with which it deals—the Constitutional distinguish them from the demagogical con- period, 1788 to 1820—demands a more careceits of a merely partisan leader, should se

ful and extended consideration than we can cure the fame of Washington from compari- now give it. sons that bring it into association with a In closing this article it may be well to character and reputation which cannot, for summarize the chief excellences of The conscience sake, be thought of in the same Library of American Literature.

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critically discriminating collection of the To this period, too, belong the writings – best productions of American minds, includchiefly political, and therefore most import- ing authors, public speakers, statesmen, jurant contributions to the history and develop- ists and theologians. ment of the American mind-of John Adams, The arrangement is chronological, revealJefferson and Madison. Of course, of these ing the events and progressive phases of the three great names, Jefferson is the most sug- history of the Republic, in their due order, gestive as paramount in influence, and signifi- and at the same time displaying more and cant of a distinct phase of political thought more distinctly the features of the American and action. We shall have occasion to return mind. to the writings of Jefferson when consider- As a completed whole it must serve as an ing those of Alexander Hamilton, who be- indispensable work of reference and an inlonged to the Constitutional period. Indeed, valuable aid in the study of American the student of American political literature thought, as well as a help in further private will find it profitable to compare the views collections of the works of American authors. of Jefferson and Hamilton as representatives of the two great leading ideas running The Science of Thought, by F. Max Müller through and characterizing the national con- (The Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago). This stitution and succeeding political events. book consists of three “ Introductory Lect

There is scarcely any name in this cata- ures on the Science of Thought,” delivered logue of writers to which it would not be a at the Royal Institution in London, March, pleasure to refer. Among these are many 1887, to which is added an appendix that whose merits are not the less deserving be- contains a correspondence of the author cause unknown to general fame. There is with distinguished objectors to his views. nothing in these volumes that will not bring The great learning of the author will enpleasure to the reader, and there is much sure a careful reading of these lectures on that will prove to be a fresh acquisition to the part of philological students, and they the stock of knowledge already gained. In should also possess interest for the general fact, the majority of us will be convinced reader. There is very little in them beyond that hitherto we have known comparatively the reach of the common understanding. little of American Literature, that with Prof. Müller has the very rare ability of many of its most deserving writers we are making the profound things of thought and still unacquainted, and that, with it as a philosophy appear plain and simple to every whole, representing, as it does, the develop- mind. ment of the American mind, the growth of Whether he will be able to convince any American thought, we are but just now mind of the correctness of the theory which gaining anything like an adequate concep- he himself boasts is “revolutionary,” is tion.

quite another matter. That “language and There are more salient points in the litera- thought are identical” is his theory. It is ture of the Revolutionary period, to a few not true because “revolutionary.” The great of which we may merely refer. Among learning of the propounder does not make these are “The Declaration of Independ- a theory so labelled, by virtue of both learnence;" " Revolutionary Congs and Ballads;" ing and characteristics combined, any more the writings of John Woolman—“How credible. It is well established that too He Testified in Meeting Against Slavery,” much learning has occasionally made men etc.; of Thomas Paine

Representative Government, * In a French Prison, 1794," The very clearness with which the author etc.; of Francis Hopkinson-“Benedick, states his theory tells against it. He says the Married Man," * The Battle of the that all thought is nothing more than simple

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addition or subtraction, but in the simple scribed. The character of Silas Lapham propositions given to prove this statement- does not compass the possible limits of its * Cogito ergo sum-“A is B”—there is growth under actual eyesight. neither addition nor subtraction, but in each a simple equation. Again, We can as little Two Men.-By Elizabeth Stoddard. Cas. think without words as breathe without sell & Co.) lungs." True, but from this are we com- A good story loses nothing of its original pelled to believe that the lungs, the organ of flavor by republication in paper covers. It breathing, are “identical" with the process speedily reaches a very much larger number of breathing? We can think of no manual of readers, not the less gratified to appreciskill without the use of an instrument which ate its merits because they pay less money we name the hand. But are all the arts, for it. Only the best books, however, should therefore, identical with the instrumentali- reach the million. If we had our way, the ties which serve to produce them? Never- “chaff” of literature should be so costly as theless, there is a philosophy at the bottom to find out only the wealthy few. Small of this revolutionary theory of the harm would result by such a reversal of learned author which deserves the attention things. of thoughtful minds.

Mrs. Stoddard's “Two Men” really reduce to one strong man.

Jason Auster is a The Rise of Silas Lapham. By W. D. great character without any worldly notoriHowells (Ticknor & Co.). This fine speci- ety. Osmond Parke serves only as a foil to men of the author's realistic art will lose the profoundly real and powerful personality nothing by being presented in a popular of Âuster, whose character is one of susform,

tained strength from the time he enters “Silas Lapham” will always prove, a Crest, marries “Sarah Parke," and begins timely lesson to the class for whom it is in- life as a carpenter, until, many years after, tended. The reader most interested in the having lived a kind of death-in-life as the character illustrated will accept it as truth- faithful, unloving, though ignorantly so, ful and real.

husband of “Sarah "-he matures, morally, The career of a man who builds a solid in his love for “Philippa.' fortune upon a lucky discovery, not sud- The character of “Sarah" is not an undenly, but slowly and by good management,

She marries, no one knows possibly helped on by a circumstance here why, a man for whom she does not care, and and there which selfish shrewdness would not until the unlooked-for return of a youthyet pronounce strictly correct, who then in ful playmate, Osmond Parke, supposed to turn loses all by quickly moving causes, in have been lost to his family-a runaway and every way legitimate, but which would ap- wholly worthless fellow-does she discover pear to baffle all human foresight, is always her mistake. She is strong enough to conand to every one instructive and interesting. ceal this discovery of her heart, but lives a But when such a career ultimates in a char- life of cold fidelity to her husband. Parke acter whose virtues no accumulation of wealth Auster, the son, is in no respect like the could by any means or instrumentalities father. He embodies in his person and serve to secure or make, the lesson becomes character the suppressed passion of his imperatively impressive.

mother. The story need not be analyzed here. Philippa, the child of Osmond Parke, apEverything in it illustrates the character of pears- we are told nothing of her motherSilas Lapham. It is planned and told for becomes a member of the Auster family, a this purpose in a manner which pleases from claimant to the estate of “Squire Parke," first to last. We do not mean to say that now in the hands of the Austers. there are not other interesting and strong Jason Auster's sterling worth is shown in characters in the story. There are a num- his management of this estate, and especially ber--all real, life-like, distinct. But they in his refusal to profit by the situation in contribute to the author's purpose best when which he finds himself. On the other hand, serving to make more distinct the personal- his wife's extreme selfishness is strangely ity of Silas Lapham.

made to counterbalance her secret affection The art of this story is pure realism, and for Osmond Parke. She is very real, but it illustrates well Mr. Howells' literary philo- surely very negative. sophy. The fancy is never called upon to We do not care to trace the story further. create any quality in the character of Silas Its chief merits lie in its fidelity to life Lapham. But despite the author's studied and nature, and in making plain the fact purpose to leave uothing for the imagination, that strong characters may be found in we are yet left in a wondering attitude by quiet places, out-of-the-way neighborhoods this fine monument of his literary art. Its and obscure villages, like Crest, where they very reality is suggestive of more than is de- appear, live wisely, and in homely ways illustrate the greatness of the human soul in its place in history that belongs to the brightest best moods of virtue, moral heroism, devotion records of an established and progressive to honor and duty, without the world” know. civilization. Its principles and its policies ing anything about what is going on. will, as time wears on, lose in the general

But we are not quite sure that the author mind their separative partisan aspects, and does not make her minor characters too become merged in the common stock of strong sometimes. For example, "Elsa,” political truths and experiences, as approved the servant, in the main an admirably-drawn and accepted. character, but who, occasionally, seems to The writer very well remembers a singnsurpass herself. And then, it is observable, larly interesting and significant literary event too, that when several of the leading charac- which had a bearing on the early life of this ters are brought together in conversation, party. In September, 1854, there appeared they each lose a share of individuality, and in Putnam's Magazine for that month an are betrayed into talking upon the same high article on “Parties and Politics," written level of wisdom. We seem to see too much by Mr. Parke Godwin. Up to this time of the author on these occasions.

Putnam's Monthly had been well received in Nevertheless, the book deserves the great the South, for its excellence as a periodireputation it long since won, and in its pres- cal. In the article by Mr. Godwin, one ent form will find its way to thousands of of great ability, and remarkably correct new readers.

in its survey of “ Parties and Politics" at

that time, the South found sufficient reason The Animal Life of Our Seashore. By for condemning the magazine, and for refusAngelo Heilprin. (Lippincott & Co.) This ing to receive it. The destruction of intelbook has particular reference to the New lectual slavery in any portion of the country Jersey coast and the southern shore of Long was not less an object of pursuit for a freeIsland, and is specially prepared for summer dom-loving party than was that of political dwellers on the seashore to enable them to slavery, as early as 1854. And yet we find study intelligently its animal life. And while (page 46) that in 1855 the first legislative asit is designed for the general reader, it is yet sembly of the territory of Kansas enacted so thorough and painstaking as to satisfy and law, accompanied by a severe penalty for its delight the more critical scientist. The style infraction, forbidding the introduction "into of the author is pleasing and clear. There is the territory, of any book, paper, magazine, not an ambiguous phrase throughout the book. pamphlet or circular containing any denial It is profusely illustrated and well printed. of the right of persons to hold slaves in the

In all cases, for the better known ob- Territory of Kansas." Under this law, Mr. jects common names are used, accompanied, Godwin's article in Putnain's Monthly coul. however, by the corresponding technical not have been safely carried through Kansas terms; and in referring to less familiar and in a United States mail-bag. The Governrare specimens, English equivalents are given ment's mail pouch is not more sacred than for Latin names. This really adds to the the citizen's ballot-box. It is quite fitting reader's interest and confidence, since he is that Senator Ingalls of Kansas should disnowhere frightened by the masks of learning cuss “ a fair vote and an honest count, It is surprising how much solid matter and and it is not less appropriate that Senator positive knowledge is found between the Hoar of Massachusetts should say: “ Not covers of this little book-all methodically till the Republic is a synonym for ne uniarranged and supplemented with a good in- versal intelligence, freedom, equa ity, and dex. The author is entitled to the highest political and social happiness of every one of praise for his delightfully instructive contri- its citizens, will the mission of the Republibution to the healthful tastes of an intelligent can party be ended.” public. For it is calculated to stimulate an Governor Long, under the head of “Pointerest in scientific pursuits for pastime, as litical Parties: 1789-1856,” gives a brief but well as for intellectual profit.

admirably succinct survey of the political

history of our country up to the time of the The Republican Party: Its llistory, Prin- formation of the Republican party. ciples and Policies. Edited by Hon. John The Hon. Edward McPherson takes up D. Long. (The M. W. Hazen Co.) The the story at this point and continues to the names of Ex-Gov. Long, Gen. Hawley and present. Perhaps no man in the country is Henry Cabot Lodge alone assure to this book better prepared to command the respectful a high literary character. There is not a attention of the nation in an account of the contributor to its pages who could afford to “Rise and Progress of the Republican associate his name and reputation with an Party.” Few will attempt to question his ephemeral publication on the subjects allotted statements, whatever they may think of the with especial reference to the respective inferences which seem to cling to his figures. abilities of the writers.

But Mr. McPherson has supplied us with The Republican party has already made a something more than a careful array of facts.

9

He has presented a brilliant retrospect of orphan by the ravages of war. What happs the career of his party, and lays a good wife would not cheerfully surrender her loved foundation for the prophecy: “ By reason of one for so generous a pension! What child the causes within itself, it must be the great would be so ungrateful when it arrived at party of the future.”

manhood as to lose an opportunity to sing Hon. L. E. Payson, of Ilinois, says that praises to the glorious government that con“ The Republican Party is entitled to the en- tributed so liberally to its support!” tire credit for the adoption of the Homestead The other great questions here discussed Law,” and proceeds to fortify this very im- with reasonable fullness and the thoroughness portant claim. The writer is unable to point belonging to experts are: “Our Fisheries," out any weak place in his defensive lines. by Senator Frye; “ The American Navy,"

The subject of Pensions is a very delicate Ex-Secretary Chandler; 6 Our Coast Deone.

There should be no grounds for mak- fenses," Gen. Hawley; “ The American Mering it a party question. The public officer chant Marine, " Representative Dingley;“Our who may deal with the soldier with a gener- Foreign Trade,” Representative Burrows; osity, extreme, even beyond what might "Internal Revenue,” Hon. Green B. Raum ; seem to him prndent for the public interest, “A Protective Tariff," Representative McKinwould yet have it said of him in the present ley; “Internal Development,” by Representaand for generations to come, “his failing tive Butterworth and F. D. Massey; “The leaned to virtue's side." The Republic can do Civil Service," Henry Cabot Lodge; and "The no wrong in lavishing its benefactions upon New South," by John S. Wise. the men who saved it; it commits no folly in To all of which we turn with interest, and extravagantly spending its surplus treasures all of which are calculated to deeply impress upon the soldiers' orphans and widows. To the public mind. condemn it for this would be like finding The book closes with the “ Platform of the fault with a man for emptying his purse into Party,” biographical sketches of Gen. Harthe hands of one who had saved him from rison and Hon. Levi P. Morton, and the drowning. We are not sure but Mr. Morrill “Rise of the Republican League of the is too careful and considerate in the discus- United States,” by its President, J. P. Foster. sion of this subject. And yet he does warm The book is well printed in clear type and with the subject :

on good paper, and is illustrated with excel"The widow who gave her husband in the lent portraits of party leaders and others. prime of life, full of bright hopes for the fut- It possesses much literary merit, and is ure, received $8 a month for her sacrifice, and characterized by a soundness of thought that this great nation generously gave her $2 per entitles it to a permanent place in the library month for the support of the child made an of every student of politics.

THE CALENDAR OF HEALTH.

Jottings for September.

tematically, and the few moments per diem

allowed for relaxation are employed in readSchools, both public and private, com- ing novels or otherwise weakening physical mence their work this month, and by the powers that are already below par. time the present number of the AMERICAN Few school-rooms are constructed or surMAGAZINE reaches its readers, they will have nished with regard to the health of little returned from summer vacations and be pre- ones who spend so many of their best hours paring for the sterner duties of winter time. therein, and attempts to better such a condi

I wish that the Calendar could say a few tion fail because there is no money to be words of undiluted praise for American made out of the contract. :schools from a sanitary point of view; but What, then, are we to do ? Take the many years experience on school boards com- chances, I presume, and send our children to

I pels me to believe and say that there are few do the best they can, where our neighbors better, more effective and rapid means of in- send theirs. There seems absolutely no juring a child's system, physical and mental, remedy short of educating the public, a than steady adherence to our hours of school slow and tedious task. Meanwhile, see to it within doors, and of lessons without. Every that children do not study out of school. successive generation finds less and less Any lesson that needs to be learned at home practical knowledge among our young peo- is worse than useless; it is positively hurtple, with a steadily decreasing rate of in- ful. Keep them out oi doors in all weathers crease of species, until it is but a question of as much as possible, and see that their food a few years when there will be no more full- is plain and nutritious. blood American women to keep up the race. Among my patients returning from the Brains and central nerves are overtaxed sys- country there are always several who come

to me to be rià of freckles, and seem to re- strainers, and recent experiments prove them gard these harmless discolorations as blem- to be worse even than that; for they are ishes to be gotten rid of at any cost of time shown to be nests for propagation of just or trouble. For the most part they are tem- such impurities as they are calculated to reporary, and a month's seclusion from the move. Far better take chances on Croton or sunbeams that have caused them will effect Cochituate direct than to have the already their removal.

laden water made a breeding place for bacScientific works divide them into two teria by so-called filters. They are not to be classes, and say that they are simply irregu- trusted. lar deposits of skin pigment, capable of be- This water question continues to be of the ing removed by proper treatment. The first, utmost public importance, and it seems exephelis, is only an aggravated sunburn, and traordinary that typhoid fever and other the brownish-yellow spots are located in the filth diseases should not rage to far greater outer skin; while the other, lentigo, is the extent than reports show, if our drink is as true freckle, lying deeper and more difficult foul as it is said to be. of cure. So long as these spots are regarded I suspect that the truth is this bacteria as blemishes by our lady friends, they will scare has been very much overworked. There have recourse to all means to displace them; are leaders in the medical profession who and I give here two or three receipts that are say directly that modern practice of mediharmless, at least, and as effective as any cine has actually nothing to show in the way patent wash sold at a great price. For sun- of better results than ancient, and that no burn or light freckles on face or hands, take greater percentage of patients recover in of Hydrochinon, one drachm by weight; palatial hospitals than in the rough shanties Glacial Phosphoric Acid, one-half drachm; where sick were kept a hundred years ago; Glycerine, two drachms; and distilled water, and certainly the past heated term, with six ounces. This lotion may be prepared by its accompanying immense consumption of any apothecary at a small cost, and is reli- water, has not shown any increased deathable. It is to be applied morning and night, rate-slightly the reverse. one's water after thoroughly cleansing the skin.

supply be distinctly and sensibly impure, try For permanent freckles, a dermatologist some other source; otherwise, it is a quesrecommends the following as invariably suc- tion if it be not unwise to disturb one's mind cessful: Bichloride of Mercury, ten grains; about microscopical bacilli, that have been Hydrochloric Acid, three drachms; Bitter swimming about ever since Adam. Almonds, an ounce and a half; Pure Glycer- What is distinctly true, however, is that ine, one ounce; Tincture of Benzoin, two the art of caring for the sick-nursing—is a drachms; and Orange-flower Water sufficient fair tree of modern growth. Not many years to make a pint. The almonds must be ago, within the memory of many among us, blanched and crushed to a paste with the the only nurses of any value were Catholic glycerine, and half of the orange-flower Sisters of Charity, whose religious vows not water added to make a smooth emulsion, to only devoted them to this noble work, but which is slowly added, beating into it like oil exacted proper training for its proper execuinto mayonnaise, the benzoin tincture. To tion. I remember how difficult it was in '62 this is to be added the remainder of the for Miss Dix to find a dozen female nurses for orange-flower water, in which has been pre- the hospital at Falls Church, and how utterly viously dissolved the mercury and acid; and ignorant of every necessary duty they proved the whole carefully filtered. Be careful not themselves when they came. Since those to apply this wash to any broken skin, and dark days, the modern school of trained keep it out of children's reach, as it is a nurses has sprung from a very small beginviolent poison if taken internally. I am in- ning, reached a very important magnitude, debted to "Medical Classics” for these two and bids fair to grow in the hearts of those receipts. When they fail, and there are whose sick need care until all untaught or cases where pigment staining resists all ex- half-taught carers for suffering humanity are ternal applications, I find nothing equal to quite extinct. an electric needle for their removal.

To use

Nothing appeals so much to sense of fitthis successfully, however, demands great ness as to watch the deft, carefully trained expertness, or a scar will remain that is methods of those young women. Quiet of worse than the original blemish, and a nerve, active and robust of body and thorspecialist should be consulted in such a case. oughly comprehensive of mind, they put both

An agent has just left my rooms after doctor and patient at ease promptly. The wasting a half hour of time in vain attempts former can rely upon his directions being to persuade me into purchasing a faucet-filter carried out intelligently and every turn in the - made in some new-fangled way.

There is malady watched with a skilled ante-percepreally no such thing as a filter for water that tion that keeps him au courant with his case can be used attached to house faucets. At all the absent hours; and the invalid feels a best, they have never been anything else but pervasive sense of constant enveloping watch

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