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plays on certain garments—the boot-tops among us in lower latitudes, and which —they get their distinctive tribal name, makes it eminently adapted for the comthe Kinnepetoos.
fort and protection of these northern As I have already hinted, the winter nomads. These snow-houses are called houses of these central Eskimo are built igloos by the natives, and have been so of snow, and I think from a two years often described by polar travelers that life in them that they are healthier and I will only allude to a few of their more more comfortable than any of wood, interesting features. They vary much in which must be peculiarly constructed size according to whether they are to be and generally void of proper ventilation permanently occupied or only for a to withstand such a rigorous winter. night or two, for the wandering hunter In some of the portions of territory cove of that lone land will make a score of ered by this widely distributed race igloos, in which he will spend only the timber is found, as along the Yukon night, to where one is made for a longer and Kouskoquim Rivers of Alaska and residence. Even the permanent igloos where a few of their numbers face the are so only relatively to their nomadic Pacific Coast. In other places also drift- habits, and are seldom occupied over a wood is thrown upon the shores of their month or six weeks, as in their constant country, as all over the Alaskan coast use the snow, by the warmth of the stone and for some distance east of the mouth lamp, is slowly converted into ice, and of the Mackenzie River, as well as parts then the snow-house becomes chilly and of Greenland; and wherever these con- uncomfortable, and is abandoned for a ditions obtain, there these polar people new one that it takes the Eskimo builder build their winter homes of logs and but two or three hours to make. poles, the most of them being half-sub- The temporary igloos are but mere terranean structures to conserve the kennels, where one can hardly turn warmth. In all other parts of their around without scraping the snow off
desolate, timberless land they make their the walls with the elbows or shoulhomes of the hard snows which the ders. The permanent ones are more comfierce Arctic gales and low temperature modious, often from fifteen to twenty have converted into a density and tex- feet in diameter and half as high. The ture unknown in the same material temporary igloo is generally a single
SEAL AND WALRUS HUNTERS.
structure, while the permanent ones often have two, three, or four snow-houses grouped around and emptying into a single one, which might be called the hall. The hall proper, however, of every snow-house is usually a low passage-way of five to twenty feet in length, through which a person has to crawl on his hands and knees, and boats are employed. In fact, when I was which is chiefly useful in excluding the on King William's Land, in 1879, we intensely cold winds outside, and as a did not give up sledging on the land refuge for the numerous dogs whenever until June 22d, and after that used the particularly stormy weather prevails. shore ice of the sea until July 24th, when
Their almost universal method of it broke up. In the early part of Septransportation is by dogs and sledges, for tember, the first snows again allowed us the good and sufficient reason that the to resume sledging. McClintock reported average winter season in Eskimo land, that the sea-ice near this point broke up when sledges are used, far exceeds the with him as late as August 10th, and the summer time, when the streams and natives told me that occasionally it hapchannels are open, and skin canoes and pened that the ice did not break up at
all, so that sledging could have been continuous here the whole year. The most popular fallacy concerning our northern people is that about their being well supplied with tame reindeer to draw their sledges. These
trained animals are confined wholly to of good dogs, on a light sledge with noththe Arctic regions of the eastern conti- ing but the driver to be hauled, can make nent, the wild variety alone being known 50 to 75 miles a day on smooth salt-water on the American side.
ice in the spring months, while a heavily There is considerable diversity through- laden sledge of 100 pounds to the dog on out all Eskimo land in even such simple the rolling hill lands will do well at 15 matters as a dog-team and sledge would to 20 miles a day, if it is to be kept up appear to be. In the far northwest the for a number of days. I have seen a method employed is to have the dogs in sledge with 3,600 pounds on it, dragged one or two lines harnessed to a double by nineteen fine dogs on smooth salttrace on either side, or to a single trace water ice. between the two lines. In Greenland The northernmost inhabitants of the they radiate outwards like a fan, each earth are the Itanese Eskimo of Greendog having his own trace meeting at the land, numbering between 100 and 150 sledge, while among the central Eski. people. Their wanderings are known mo, where most of my travels were to reach to the 79th parallel of latitude, cast, the same general arrangement is where they are seemingly barred by the maintained, but the traces are of unequal huge Humboldt Glacier. The highest length, the longest one belonging to an reached by white men is not far beyond unusually well-trained and intelligent this, and Eskimo ruins have been found dog, called the leader, whose movements between; and, considering their far as to going to the right or left, faster or greater superiority to the Caucasian slower, stopping or starting, all the in traveling in those regions, it is more others follow. The rate at which a than likely that they have extended team will travel is about as indefinite as their excursions beyond any point ever that at which a horse will go. A number attained by civilized explorers.
FREDERICK III. OF GERMANY.
OT the bold Brandenburg, at Prussia's birth ;
Nor yet Great Frederick when his fields were won
And her domain stretched wide beneath the sun;
And woe subdued the world beside his bier.
Serene he walked with death through year and year
Of hope-the faithful, steadfast, lofty soul!
While Baltic laves its borders, Rhine doth roll,
Than his whose fame nor realm nor age can span-
Edna Dean Proctor.
THE COUNTRY IN MIDSUMMER.
BY SARA F. GOODRICH.
" Here is no enemy
process of haying is picturesque, from But winter and rough weather."
the cutting of the grass to the stowing ROM May-day until midsummer- away of the freshly dried, fragrant hay
day, the hours, filled as they are in the great stacks or mows. Besides, the
with flowers and bird-songs, are farmer must keep a weather-wise eye on o
one long delight to the lover of the summer clouds' slow moving, laden nature. The country becomes swathed wains, from the hour when the clicking and muffled in over-topping verdure. mowing-machine is first sent into the The tide of life is scarcely at flood meadow, until the last load is securely when the earth wheels past the solstitial put away. While the hay is being cared point; there follows yet a month of fer- for, the winter wheat is growing golden vid heat before we feel that the ebb has and ready for the reaper. The oats which fairly begun. According to the predic- now look as though covered with blue tion furnished by Gen. Greely of the gauze, will ripen next. Then the russet Weather Bureau, in the Northwestern stubble fields will suggest only too forStates the week of greatest heat has now cibly that the summer is on the wane. passed and a series of nights without dew In the still mid-summer heat, every may be expected-nights when one may green thing gives out a good smell, from easily feign he hears the corn grow. This the delicious blossoms of the grape to is a good time to live out of doors. Too the resinous odor of evergreens. The often the summer flitting of city folk is woodlands have a luxuriance of foliage postponed until the country has lost most that makes their recesses look dark and of its attractiveness. By August the shadowy-almost forbidding. But in the farmers themselves should have leisure honeyed bloom of the basswood trees, a to visit some of the pleasant mountain or bait is held out to the bees which those seashore resorts where good music and nectar-hunters are not slow to seize upon. wide-awake lectures afford much needed Later yet, the chestnut hangs forth its relief from the tedium of country life. creamy tassels. Ferns are now in great
Following midsummer-day-the noon est perfection, and, in most varieties, the of the year—a midday quiet comes over fruitful fronds will be found well covered the fields; one by one the birds, busy with spores, while the lover of wild with flocks of gaping fledgelings, forget flowers will find some of the less familto sing; even the shrilling of innumerable iar sorts in suitable nooks. In a moist grasshoppers seems only to emphasize the opening in the woods, one may come sultry silence. The flowers that remain upon a truss of the great purple fringed have a certain firmness of petal and orchis-reward enough for one walktropical wealth of color in place of the or, failing that some smaller yellow dewy freshness of spring blossoms. ones, or meadow lilies like a flame in
The fiery-hearted meadow lilies grow the dim recesses. Among the glossy here and there on unmown banks. Later, leaves that carpet the ground under the in a tangled thicket of climbing bitter- trees, there are checker berry (or parsweet, smilax and iron-weed, or by the tridge berry) vines strung with fragrant grassy margin of the creek may be found twin blossoms, and careful search may the rarer and more stately Turk’s-Cap uncover the waxen bell of the winterlily. In the meadows, the timothy, or green, a flower rarely seen although the herd's-grass, standing close-ranked and red berries are so familiar. In some rich tall, is covered with a fine misty purple spot we may find a white plant whose bloom which has a mealy smell like tas- short stalks, growing in little colonies, selled corn, only perceived as the wind hold each a single flower either droopbrings us the breath of the field. If there ing “like sweet soul chidden," or facing is any fair and grateful husbandry, it is directly skyward-a fair chalice before seen in the hay-field. Every step in the which one involuntarily pauses in wonder. This is the monotropa or Indian grow the better acquainted with sun and pipe. It lives so without one stain of wind, bird and insect. The earth-mother earthly green in stalk or leaf, only by seldom takes close to her heart a child grace of the trees that spreading their preoccupied with any quest. She can foliage above in the sunshine, elaborate wait, keeping her own counsel, until we the sap that feeds both tree and flower. come asking only to learn what she So some fair lives are made possible by deigns to reveal. So leave the berries heritage of others' toil.
to the birds; rest awhile on the broad The first wild fruit of the season ripens lap of mother earth, with only a hedge under June suns and is in its prime about of grasses round about you, and gaze midsummer-day. If we go strawberry- into the deeps of over-arching sky. Here ing, we will skirt the meadow, keeping is time to listen to the meadow larks close to the fence (so as not to tread whistling “O quit you, quit you,” in down the farmer's mowing), until we long-drawn cadence; to feel how the reach a wilder and more weedy field, warmth of the sun beams upon all lowwhere the grass looks thin and poor. ly things; to have some thought for the Here is our prize. But it is well for us swarming insect lives that find a home if the berries are not too abundant. The in the (to them) almost impenetrable gathering of wild fruit is like the an- jungle of grass-stems; and to take into gler's art in its gentle associations with your heart somewhat of the breadth and nature. If we fill no baskets, we shall peace of the summer fields.
SHE WOULD WRITE FOR THE MAGAZINES.
HE little lady was in She was only five feet two inches in despair. It was such a height, it is true, but her brain and her lovely bonnet-so be- heart were larger than the average. She coming, so faultless, was wisdom and affection personified. so ravishingly sweet. And when the meal ended and they had There it stood on its adjourned to a cosy end of the sitting perch in the modiste's room, his happiness was complete, listenwindow, beckoning to ing to her terse and suggestive inquiries
her, half impatient to on the tariff question, which were interbe poised upon her head and shine amid rupted by a sudden move to the piano. the throngs on the Avenue, or arouse to Then she lingered over Chopin's Études, placid thought at church. She could not dashed frantically into Brahms, and resist its entreaty-she had crossed the ended solemnly with Beethoven, while street, lingered at the window, admiring Fred Dennison's eyes after vain efforts to its fresher beauties from a nearer view, keep open, closed in sympathetic sleep. and then-had fled in confusion, closing She was a clever little lady, indeed, A her eyes to shut out that beatific vision year ago, a prize graduate of Miss Delifrom Paris !
catessen's fashionable school, and now a A wise little woman, indeed, and she happy wife of the dearest man in the flushed in triumph when she reached world who was destined to become a her snug house, and felt an inch or two judge of the United States Supreme taller on having gained a moral victory. Court, and allow her all the bonnets And when Fred Dennison came home she wanted. from his law-office that evening, she The next day, Mrs. Dennison by one beamed upon him with more than an- of those curious coincidences common in gelic rapture. There were no bounds to this transitory life of ours, found herself her effusiveness. She never looked more on the identical street and gazing at the charming. Not every struggling young same bonnet. A sudden resolution seized lawyer could boast of a wife so economi- her. She would enter in a casual way, cal, yet so lovely, as his little queen Alice. and unconcernedly ask its price. Its