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less. The roads were so well built, how that it is dirtier and a little more dilapiever, as to stand the wear and tear of dated. There is not even an excuse for a three centuries, and the slightest attempt hotel, and private hospitality is restricted at repair would have kept them in order. by the poverty of the people. Few

Although the journey from Guayaquil travelers ever go there—only those who takes eight or nine days, Garcia Moreno, are compelled—and the demand is not a former President of Ecuador, once sufficient to justify the establishment of made it in thirty-six hours. He heard a hotel. One-fourth of the entire city is of a revolution, and springing upon his covered with convents, and every fourth horse went to the capital, had twenty- person you meet is a priest, or a monk, two conspirators shot, and was back at or a nun. There are monks in gray, Guayaquil in less than a week. Moreno monks in blue, monks in white, monks was Dictator for twelve years, and was in black, and orders that no one ever one of the fiercest and most cruel rulers heard of before. There are all sorts of South America has ever seen. He shot priests, and the jolly or grim old fellows men who would not take off their hats one sees in Vibert's pictures are found on to him in the streets; and had a drunken almost every corner in Quito. priest impaled in the principal

If it were not for the climate, plaza of Quito, as a warning to

Quito would be in the midst the clergy to observe habits of

of a perpetual pestilence; but sobriety or conceal their intem

notwithstanding the prevailing perance. There was nothing too

filthiness, there is very little brutal for this man to do, and

sickness, and pulmonary disnothing too sacred to escape his

eases are unknown. Mountain grasp. Yet he compelled Con

fever, produced by cold and a gress to pass an act

torpid liver, is the commonest declaring that the

type of disease. The population Republic of Ecua

of the city, howdor “existed whol

ever, is gradually ly and alone for

decreasing, and is the service of the

said to be now Holy Church,"and

about sixty thouforbid the importa

sand. There were tion of books and

five hundred thouperiodicals which

sand people at Quidid not receive the

to when the Spansanction of the Jes

iards came, and a uits. He divided

hundred years ago his army into four

the population was divisions, called,

reckoned at double respectively, “The

what it now is. Division of the

Half the houses in Blessed Virgin,"

the town are emp“The Division of the Son

ty, and to see a new family of God,” “The Division of

moving in would be a sensathe Holy Ghost," and "The

tion. Most of the finest resiDivision of the Body and

dences are locked and barred, Blood of Christ.” He made

and have remained so for the “Sacred Heart of Jesus"

years. The owners are usuthe national emblem, and

ally political exiles, who are called his body-guard “The

living elsewhere, and can Holy Lancers of Santa

neither sell nor rent their Maria." He died in 1875 by assassina- property. Political revolutions are so tion, and the country has been in a state common, and the results are always so of political eruption ever since.

disastrous to the unsuccessful, that there Architecturally, Quito is not unlike is a constant stream of fugitives leaving other Spanish-American towns, except the State.

[graphic]

BREAD PEDDLER.

Although Ecuador is set down in the earth, but will give you not even a the geographies as a republic, it is pebble. This hypocrisy results in mutual simply a popish colony, and the power distrust

. No one ever believes what is of the Vatican is nowhere felt more said to him; partnerships in business are completely. The return of a priest from seldom formed, and corporations are

[graphic][merged small]

a pilgrimage to Rome is as great an event almost unknown. If a man gets a little as the Declaration of Independence; and cash he never invests it in public enterso subordinate is the State to the Church prises, but keeps it in a stocking for fear that the latter selects the presidents, the he may be swindled, and the fear is well congress, and the judges. A crucifix sits founded. Only the Indians keep faith, in the audience chamber of the president, and that exclusively among themselves. and on the desk of the presiding officer of To steal from a Spaniard they consider congress. All the schools are controlled not only proper, but justifiable. The by the bishops, and the children know Spaniards stole all they have from them. more about the lives of the saints than They never rob, swindle, nor betray one about the geography of their own coun- another, and are as faithful as death to try. There is not even a good map of their own race. Ecuador.

In support of this statement, it may The Spaniards are famous for their be noted that there once was a revopoliteness, and in Ecuador, as in all parts lutionary conspiracy among the Indians. of South America, courtesy is a part of An uprising was planned to take place sitheir religion. The lowest, meanest man multaneously all over the republic. As the in Quito is politeness personified, but it natives could neither read nor write, they is all surface. He will stab you or rob were given bundles of sticks, each bundle you as soon as your back is turned. The containing the same number. Only one Ecuadorian gentleman will promise you was to be burned each day, and the night

[graphic][merged small]

after the last was burned was to see the goods imported from abroad is exceeduprising. None betrayed the secret. Of ingly small, and as no records are kept the many thousands who were admitted at the custom-houses, it is impossible to to the conspiracy not one violated faith. discover what they are or what is paid for

Everything is done in the most prim- them. The only industry that has sprung itive manner, as there is very little labor- up in recent years is that of beer making, saving machinery in the country. The and twelve breweries have been estabagriculturists do not plough, but plant the lished, which supply the wants of the seed by poking a hole in the ground with people. Beer is very rapidly replacing a stick. The wheat is threshed and the native chica and aguardiente as the the corn shelled by driving horses over national beverage. them, and other labor is performed in Although Quito for a long time was a similar manner, the women working noted among the Spanish-American cities beside the men, and receiving equal as a home of art and science, and once had

There is a river running through three universities, the picture galleries the centre of the city, which might furnish have been robbed and destroyed by the reyplenty of water power, but is utilized only olutionists, and the education of the peoby a few small flour-mills. There is but ple is almost completely neglected. There one steam-engine in the entire country, is only one printing office in the entire and that is in a sugar

mill, where a dozen republic outside of Guayaquil, which is or more hands are employed. Wages are owned by the government, and is used exceedingly low, from ten to twenty-five simply for the printing of official docucents per day, and skilled mechanics are ments. The press and type were made unknown. There are a few rude shops in the United States. There is but one where agricultural implements are man- newspaper, the Official Gazette, which is ufactured in a primitive manner, but published by the government, and is cireach family generally makes what is culated gratuitously among the officials needed for its own use. The amount of of the republic as a means of convey. ing to them the decrees of the Presi- to the river, swam to the other side, and dent or the laws of Congress. Although made his way, thirty miles on foot, to the Ecuador is one of the richest of all the hacienda of a friend, where he found South American countries in its natural refuge. For two days and nights he was resources, there is neither peace nor in the forest without food, and when he industry; and until the influence of the finally reached a haven he was totally Romish church is destroyed and foreign exhausted. For a week or ten days he capital and labor are introduced, I do not lay ill with a fever, but couriers were think there will be progress or prosperity. sent to Guayaquil and Quito, and arThere is at present no encouragement to riving before the reports of his assasimmigration, and foreigners are looked sination, assured the government offiupon with distrust. Several colonies of cials of his safety. At the same time Germans have entered the country, but a mutiny broke out at the military garmost of them have died or moved away. risons in both cities, but was quelled, and

Revolutions are frequent ; they usu- the leaders were summarily shot. ally begin by an attempt to assassinate The man who originated this revolution the President. The plan of procedure was Elroy Alfaro, a native of Ecuador, is usually for the discontented politi- and the unsuccessful candidate for the cal faction to create a mutiny in the presidency when Caamaño was elected. army, either by bribes to the officers or He had been engaged in such undertakpromises of promotion. As the private ings before, and at the time of Caamaño's soldiers always obey their officers, like so many automatons, and are as willing to fight on one side as the other, to secure the officers is to secure the army. The next step is to seize the barracks and arsenal, put the President to death, proclaim else provisional dictator, and then call a junta, or convention, to nominate a constitutional executive. Señor Caamaño seems to bear a charmed life, as for three years, while he has been President, he has had numerous remarkable escapes. The last attempt to assassinate him was in January 1886, while he was going from Guayaquil to Quito. He was riding, as travelers usually do, by night, to inauguration was very nearly successful escape the heat of the sun, when his small in an attempt to overthrow the governescort was attacked by a band of mount- ment. For several months he had control aineers, and fled, leaving the President to of the provinces along the sea-coast, but look out for himself. He jumped from his was finally driven out by the legitimate horse, ran into the forest which encloses army, and escaped to Colombia, where the road, and creeping through the trees his last plot was planned.

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one

RUINS OF THE PALACE OF ATAHUALPA.

some

The govern

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ment of the latter country, however, hand in, Alfaro has fulminated sundry denounced him as an outlaw, and upon violent manifestoes against the prevailing the failure of his recent outbreak he took party in Ecuador; and the latter in their refuge in Peru, where he is again hatch- turn have consistently held him up to ing conspiracies. During his exile, partly public execration as the apostle of anarchy to amuse himself and partly to keep his and aguardiente.

EARLY NEW-ENGLAND CHOIRS AND SINGING-SCHOOLS.

BY FREDERIC G. MATHER.

vance

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It was,

ANDEL led the ad- sentimental England acknowledged their

in the power by laying aside the songs of the test of the eighteenth Crusaders for the chants of the blind century as to whether crowders and the lays of the minstrels. the Lord or the Devil Then came the ribald lines of the Cavashould have the bet- liers, and the friendly sarcasms known ter music,

as masques, which marked the greater indeed, struggle part of the seventeenth century. With of great proportions. the end of the English Revolution, Two hundred years Henry Purcell appeared as the founder

before that time the of the modern school of English music, Meister-singers had left the impress of in the same manner that Samuel Richtheir culture upon the German people. ardson afterward gave us a prototype They had also thrown their influence of the modern novel in the pages of upon the side of the Reformation. Un- “Pamela” and “Sir Charles Grandison."

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