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“Foolish child!” he said to Olivia, “Yes." after the first and almost silent ecstasy He laughed. “Well, I'll own to the of their meeting had passed;"why should responsibility, my dearest, and not be toc you not have told me your trouble be- ambitious about increasing it." fore, when it was tormenting your soul? Olivia drew a long sigh. - ResponsiI would have convinced you that your bility?" she murmured. “My sense of a sin (no matter what may have been its great one will never cease while I live; result) was far less unpardonable than for I shall always see reproachful proofs you believed."

of my weakness in the strength which "Nothing could have so convinced ought to have made it self-control.” me," said Olivia. She drew away from "And I," he replied, still playfully, him with a little shiver, though his en “shall always hope for strength to grapcircling arms would not let her recede ple with your hardiest metaphysics, and far. “I have misgivings even now," repress them when they take too morbid she went on, “that I am absolving my- an outlook.” self much too easily.”

But she shook her head forbiddingly "Oh, don't bother, then, about absolv. at this lighter mood of his, even while ing yourself at all,” smiled Massereene. she drooped closer to him and let his “Leave it all to me. Make me the keep- arms more fondly enwrap her; for with er of your conscience."

all her ever-to-be-endured regret, she "You ’ve enough that is mine to take could not but love the levity that his care of already," said Olivia, looking deep happiness forced from him,-and as natinto his eyes and answering his smile. urally as the dawn itself will force a

"I've your heart," he said. “Do you dewy glitter from those grasses that its mean that?"

first beams have bathed ! (THE END.)



(Second Paper.]

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY was essen. England. His son, Lord Lyndhurst, the tially a painter of dowagers. The Tory celebrated jurist and High Chancellor feeling of the British colonies before the of England, shares this opinion. But Revolutionary War, and during the time Dunlap, whose chronicles of early Amerit was in progress, is well embodied in ican art have a classic value, thinks that his portraits. The ladies and gentlemen he was probably a pupil of the elder whom he put on canvas were believers Smybert, who was settled at Boston. in the divine right of kings, and scorned Smy bert merits attention, not only as the republican rabble. Copley's meth- a painter, but as an important figure in ods were somewhat formal, and he lacked the romance of early American history. artistic as well as social ease of manner; He was the friend of that Bishop Berkebut one has a suspicion that an uncon- ley, whose famous line, “Westward the scious reactionary tendency against the course of empire takes its way," has beleveling opinions of the age lurks in come the literary key-note of American every dry, hard stroke of the royalist national development. He met Berkepainter's brush. He was not free from ley in Italy, and together they came to colonialism, and his early seekings after America to carry out the bishop's great truth, alone and unaided, on the “wild scheme of founding a university in shores of America," influenced even his Rhode Island, for which the English latest works.

crown had agreed to make a grant. That Some of Copley's biographers claim experiment in socialistic intellectualism that he had no teacher but Nature and budded never to flower, because the himself until he went to Italy and money was appropriated for another purpose by the English government. shown at the recent Philadelphia exhiBishop Berkeley returned to Ireland, bition. It is probable that one of the and Smybert was led by fate to Boston, sons is that little priggish boy who leans where he painted portraits and exerted on Mrs. Turner's lap, holding up a rose a developing influence over a group of like a cabbage for her admiration, and young men with artistic tastes, the most resting the other hand on an enormous promising of whom was Copley.

three-cornered hat—which was doubtless He was known as a portrait-painter the proper head-covering for the sober as early as 1760, and for fourteen years little gentlemen of his day. Mrs. Turhe practiced his profession in his native ner is evidently inculcating lessons of land, and took high rank among colo- piety into the youthful breast. The exnial artists. He was living at Cam- pression of her countenance is appropribridge, Mass., when he married Miss ately composed; she holds a book with Anne Clarke, daughter of a merchant one hand, and with the other points a of Boston; and we learn that on the moral for the benefit of the young. occasion of his marriage he wore a suit Copley painted better portraits than this, of crimson velvet with gold buttons. but we may doubt if he ever painted There was no bohemianism about Cop- one more thoroughly in harmony with ley. Having the respectability of a the spirit of social respectability which bourgeois and the tastes of an aristo- informed eighteenth-century Philadelcrat, he was admirably fitted to seize phia. and portray the characteristics of the Sally McKean was a belle of PhilaAmerican merchants.

delphia toward the end of the last centCopley himself was an epitome of the ury. In the portrait that Gilbert Stuart social conditions of the period just pre- painted of her, she looks determined to ceding the Revolutionary War. The make the most of life and enjoy herself freedom of intercourse which prevailed as best she may. There is a shrewd, in the infant colonies when high and humorous twinkle in her audacious low were banded together for the mu- black eyes, which shows a thoroughly tual protection of house and home had American appreciation of her own matvanished. Its place was taken by a rimonial success. She is a marchioness, strong class-feeling among the wealthy and her son is a duke and a grandee of and a bitter sense of division, which Spain! No colonial gallant was good was soon to find expression in the roy- enough for Sally McKean, say her spitealist and republican parties. It is to ful mates at levee or ball. O, no-she this period, when Copley's American must have a title! reputation as a portrait-painter was at And, indeed, why should she not, gay its height, that we may assign his pict- and handsome as she is, with her father ure of Mrs. Peter Turner.

one of the political leaders of PhiladelMrs. Turner, who sits with so respect- phia and a valued servant of the new able and dignified an air in her arm- republic? Judge McKean was one of chair in this portrait of her, was not the signers of the Declaration of Indea Philadelphian by birth. She was a pendence, president of Congress, chiefMiss Sarah Wally, of London. Peter justice of Pennsylvania for twenty years, Turner was also a Londoner. He came governor of Pennsylvania and governor to America in 1742, and purchased a of Delaware. The maiden name of the tract of land in the city of Philadel- mother of this clever young creature was phia, beyond where Girard College now Armitage, of Newcastle, Del. She was stands. It was named “Islington Farm," the second wife of Judge McKean. Pretty and was situated on “Turner's Lane," Sally was born to a commanding posinow called Turner Street. The three sons tion, even in a small colonial way. No of this admirable couple, who brought wonder she aspired to a high place in the traditions of the English gentry with life, such as only European society could them to America, have handed the fam- give; and when that brilliant young noily name down to the present day. ble, Carlo Maria Martinez Casa-Yrujo,

The portrait of Mr. Peter Turner was appeared above the social horizon, among also painted by Copley, but it was not all the belles of Philadelphia it was



high rank and conspicuous position! A life of love and orange-flowers, of court ceremonies and bull-fights, of color and sunshine and music and moonlight, such as all the wealth of Philadelphia could not bring to its own doors!

In Gilbert Stuart's portraits of the marquis and marchioness, he shows them young, handsome, and, as it were, flowering; for there is a heavenly bloom of color in these two portraits which reminds one of the rosy almond-flowers of southern Europe. The sensitive, poetic, exquisitely receptive temperament of this king among American painters shows him in these portraits as thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the two personalities fused by marriage into one-the brilliant, reckless, ambitious American girl, and the courtly, dignified, charming Spanish diplomat. They were types to be carefully studied and worthily embalmed for posterity, and Stuart did his best by the handsome couple. He has made of the marchioness at once a voluptuous Andalusian and a daring, self-confident American-a combination likely to conquer all worlds.

The tender, pearly flesh-tones which Sally McKean for whose charms fate Stuart borrowed from Vandyck give to reserved this admirable parti. He was these portraits an iridescent quality that Spanish minister to the United States at allures and satisfies the eye, while it the time he married Miss McKean, and suggests infinite possibilities of life and he held the post until 1808. The mar- art. There is much of Vandyck in quis was the first minister sent from Stuart. He was a born courtier and Spain to the new nation. He was sic- aristocrat, impressionable as only highcessively plenipotentiary at the con- ly-organized natures are. He had the gress of Aix-la-Chapelle, ambassador to modern neurotic temperament, which France, minister of foreign affairs, and thrilled him with life's reflex action to president of the council; besides filling his finger-tips; and this thrills the specother positions in the Spanish diplo- tator, who, after long years, stands matic world. The Philadelphia beauty before his portraits of dead and gone accompanied him in his wanderings, and beauties, statesmen and patriots, and was the belle of several courts. Her feels their souls speak to his own. son, the Duke of Sotomayor, born at Stuart was a genius-a genius deliPhiladelphia, became prime minister of cate, capricious, fastidious. The child Spain. The marchioness made her home of Jacobites, who gave him the name at last in Madrid, where she died at the of the martyr king, the merry monarch age of seventy-five.

and the last of the ill-fated line, Gilbert One can imagine her looking back on Charles Stuart—though born an Amerithe provincial ways of the republican can-was, by inheritance, by instinct court, and thanking her stars that she and nature, loyal to king and liege had gotten out of them into a more lord. He was no formalist, no respecttropical social atmosphere. Fancy the able, ambitious bourgeois like Copley, transition from the subtle Quakerism of but an almost feudal royalist. The boy even the most progressive Philadelphia saw the light of day in 1754, in his society to the life of a Spanish doña of father's snuff-mill at Narragansett; but


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none the less he had the soul of one of painter exhibited of a certain Mr. Grant Charles Stuart's Cavaliers in his breast. as he appeared when skating attracted As a boy, he painted with one Cosmo the attention of kindly Sir Joshua ReyAlexander, a Scotch artist with whom nolds, who praised it highly. Thus was he went to Scotland, returning after a Stuart's position made at London, and disastrous journey. As boy and man, very soon he was as successful as any Stuart was indolent. For weeks to- portrait-painter in the great city, exceptgether he idled, and he was one of the ing only Gainsborough and Sir Joshua. sort that are always poor: the aristo- A pity there was no King Charles for cratic and artistic natures, warring in him to paint! With such a theme his one man against the Philistine virtues, loyal brush would have beaten Vandyck produce similar results in all ages. In on his own ground. His Stuart sentiLondon, whither he went poor as ever, ment scarcely found favor with Hanohis talent as an organist gained him a verian George. His loyalism showed livelihood. Thirty pounds a year was itself after his return to America, when no great sum, but it kept him until he painted Washington with the touch West took him by the hand, accepted of a royalist, giving to him a dignity, him as a pupil, and gave him employ- a stateliness and a courtly grace which ment as an assistant. But Stuart's talent the Stuart-lover would fain have bewas of a rarer and finer order than good stowed elsewhere, had not Culloden endold Benjamin West's. It was not long ed Jacobite hopes. Thus Gilbert Stuart's before a portrait the young American Washington is a Stuart in more senses than one—a shadowy republican real- a more attractive person than the humization of a hopeless, yet heroic ideal of drum queen of George III., although she vanished royalty!

had been a baker's wife, and was so shockThe social atmosphere of the Ameri- ingly improper! And thus she continued can Revolution was very favorable to to set the fashions in hoods and sacks for the development of professional beauty. Philadelphia loveliness until King Death Women craved for excitement and hub- forced her to yield her sceptre to the fair bub of various sorts, probably because young Austrian dauphiness. Then the their men-kind would like to have kept Revolutionary War, with its influx of them tied to spinning-wheels and pickle- French allies, served to unite Philadelphia jars. Now it is very possible that the still closer with Paris in the beaten way American Revolutionary War was actu- of fashion. It is said that Queen Marie ally welcomed by women weary of mo- Antoinette herself listened with pleasure notonous domesticity and tired of being to the tales of the pretty women of the sniffed at by their English cousins as Quaker city which were brought to her “colonial” and “provincial” and “old- court by the officers just returned from fashioned” and “behind the age.” What the American war. are irreverently called, in modern par- There is nothing more charming nor lance," social scratchers,” were doubtless characteristic in the whole range of as prevalent then as now. Chroniclers Philadelphia portraiture than the two inform us that before the Revolutionary beauties whom Charles Wilson Peale War there were two great social pedigree divisions in Philadelphia society, and after it there were three!

Even before the actual outbreak of the war, the external aspect of the city had changed considerably. The political hatred toward England had brought about reaction in favor of French manners, customs and follies. The fads and frailties of the court of Louis XV. were ingrafted upon the sober and pious enjoyments of Philadelphia's Quakers, producing an extraordinary effect of contrast. Madame Pompadour giving the social tone to the beauties of Philadelphia presented a peculiar and significant picture! The wicked French woman was certainly




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