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rhus is soon obliged to quit those territories.

Sud end of Demetrius, who dies in prison 13

Sect. III. Ptolemy Soter resigns his king-

dom to his son Ptolemy Philadelphus.

The tower of Pharos built. The image of

Serapis conveyed to Alexandria.. The ce-

lebrated library founded in that city, with

an academy of learned men. Demetrius

Phalereus presides over both

Sect. IV. The magnificent solemnity at the

inauguration of Ptolemy Philudelphus,

king of Egypt

34

Sect. V. The commencement of the reign of

Ptolemy Philadelphus. The death of De-

metrius Phalereus. Seleucus resigns his

queen and part of his empire to his son

Antiochus." Theuar between Seleucus and

Lysimachus; the latter of whom is slain

in a battle. Seleucus is assassinated by

Ptolemy Ceraunus, on whom he had con-

ferred a multitude of obligations. The

two sons of Arsinoe are murdered by their

uncle Ceraunus, who also banishes that

princess. Ceraunus is soon punished for

those crimes by the irruption of the Gauls,

by whom he is slain in a batile. The at-

tempt of that people against the temple of

Delphos. Antigonus establishes himself

in Macedonia

47

Sect. VI. Ptolemy Philadelphus causes the

books of the holy scripture, preserved by

the Jews with the utmost care, to be trans-

lated into the Greek languages, as an or-

nament to his library. This is called the

Version of the Septuagint

66

Sect. VII. The rarious expeditions of Pyr-

rhus: First, into Italy; where he fights

two battles with the Romans. The charac-

ter and conduct of Cineas. Secondly, into

Sicily; and then into Italy again. His

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is succeeded by his son Demetrius. The

war between the two brothers, Antiochus

and Seleucus. The death of Eumenes, king

of Pergamus. Attalus succeeds him. The

establishment of the Parthian empire by

Arsaces. Antiochus is slain by robbers.

Seleucus is taken prisoner by the Par.

thians. Credit of Joseph, the nephew of

Onias, with Ptolemy. The death of De-

metrius, king of Macedonia. Antigonus

seizes the throne of that prince. The death

of Seleucus

137

Sect. II. The establishment of the republic

of the Achæans. Arutus delivers Sicyon

from tyranny. The character of that

young Grecian. He is enabled, by the li-

beralities of Ptolemy Evergetes, to extin-

guish a sedition ready to break out in

Sycion. Takes Corinth from Antigonus

king of Macedonia. Prevails on the

cities

of Megara, Trazene, Epidaurus, and Me-

galopolis, to accede to the Achæan league;

but is not so successful with respect to

Argos

154

Sect. III. Agis king of Sparta attempts

to reform the state, and endeavours to re-

vire the ancient institutions of Lycurgus;

in which he partly succeeds; but finds an

entire change in Sparta, at his return from

a campaign in which he had joined Aratus

against the Ætolians. He is at last con-

demned to die, and erecuted accordingly

Sect. IV. Cleomenes ascends the throne of

Sparta, arid engages in a war against the

Achæans, over whom he obtains several

advantages. He reforms the government

of Sparta, and re-establishes the ancient

discipline, Acquires new advantages over

Aratus and the Achæans. Aratus applies

jor suecöur to Antigonus king of Mace-

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He turns his arms against Achæus, who ,

had rebelled. He at last seizes him trea-

cherously, and puts him to death

233

Sect. II. The Ætolians declare against the

Achieans. Battle of Caphya lost by Ara-

tus. The Achæans address Philip, wha

undertakes their defence. Troubles break

out in Lacedæmonia. The unhappy death

of Cleomenes in Egypt. Two kings are

elected in Lacedæmonia. That republic

joins with the Etolians

260

SECT. III Various expeditions of Philip

against the enemics of the Achæans.

Apelles, his prime minister, abuses his

confidence in an extraordinary manner.

Philip makes an inroad into Ætolia.

Thermæ taken at the first assault. Er-

cesses of Philip's soldiers in that city.

Prudent retreat of that prince. Tumults

in the camp. Punishnient of those who

had occasioned them. Inroad of Philip

into Laconia. The conspirators form new.

cabals. Punishment inflicted on them.

A peace is proposed between Philip and

the Achæans on one side, and the Etolians

on the other, which at last is concluded

270

Sect. IV. Philip concludes a treaty with

Hannibal. The Romans gain a consider-

æble victory over him in Apollonia. He

changes his conduct.

His breach of faithi

and irregularitics. He causes Aratus to

be poisoned. The Etolians concludle an

alliance with the Romans. Attalus, king

of Pergamus, and the Lacedæmonians,

accede to it. Machanidas usurps a tyran.

nical power at Sparta. Various expedi-

tions of Philip and Sulpitins the Roman

prætor, in one of which Philopamen sig-

nalizes himself

300

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