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of pleasure. The extravagant flatteries of those who were for ever crowding about his person, made him fancy his talents superior to those of all other men. He assumed haughty airs, gave in to luxury and profusion, and at last grew insupportable to all the world.

The wars of the East have made me suspend the relation of the affairs that happened in Greece during their continuance; we now return to them." ;

SECT. II. The Ætalians declare against the Ache

ans. Battle of Caphya lost by Aratus. The Achæans address Philip, who undertakes their defence. Troubles break out in Lacedemonia. The unhappy death of Cleomenes in Egypt. Two kings are elected in Lacedæmonia. That'repub

lic joins with the Ætolians. THE Ætolians, particularly in the time we are now speaking of, were become a very powerful people in Greece. Originally their territories extended from the river Achelous, to the strait of the gulf of Corinth, and to the country of the Locrians, surnamed Ozolæ. But, in process of time, they had_possessed themselves of several cities in Acarnania, Thessaly, and other neighbouring countries. They led much the same life upon land as pirates do at sea, that is, they exercised themselves perpetually in plunder and rapine. Wholly bent on lucre, they did not consider any gain as infamous or unlawful; and were entire strangers to the laws of peace or war. They were very much inured to toils, and intrepid in battle. They signalized themselves particularly in the war against the Gauls, who made an irruption into Greece; and showed themselves zealous defen. ders of the public liberty against the Macedonians.

Strab, I. X. p. 450. Polyb. p. 331 & 746. Pausan. I. X. p. 650.

The increase of their power had made them haughty and insolent. That haughtiness appeared in the answer they gave the Romans, when they sent ambassadors to order them not to infest Acarnania. They expressed, if we may believe Trogus Pompeius, or Justini his cpitomizer, the highest contempt for Rome, which they termed only in its origin a shame. ful receptacle of thieves and robbers, founded and built by fratricide, and formed by an assemblage of women ravished from the arms of their parents. They added, that the Ætolians had always distinguished themselves in Greece, as much by their valour as their virtue and descent; that neither Philip nor Alexander his son had been formidable to them; and that at a time when the latter made the whole earth tremble, they had not been afraid to reject his edicts and injunctions. That therefore the Romans would not do well to rouse the Ætolians against them; a people whose arms had extirpated the Gauls, and despised the Macedonians. The reader may, from this speech, form a judgment of the Ætolians, of whom much will be said in the sequel.

* From the time that Cleomenes of Sparta had lost his kingdom, and Antigonus, by his victory at Selasia, had in some measure restored the peace of Greece, the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, who were tired by the first wars, and imagined that affairs would always continue on the same foot, had laid their arms aside, and totally neglected military disci, pline. The Ætolians meditated taking advantage of this indolence. Peace was insupportable to them, as it obliged them to subsist at their own expence, accustomed as they were to support themselves wholly by rapine. Antigonus had kept them in awe, and prevented them from infesting their neighbours; but, after his death, despising Philip, because of his youth, they marched into Peloponnesus sword in

Justin. 1. xxviii. c. 2.
Polyb. I, iv. p. 272—292. Plut. in Arat. p. 1049,


hand, and laid waste the territories of the Messenians, Aratus, exasperated at this perfidy and insolence, and seeing that Timoxenes, at that time captaingeneral of the Achæans, endeavoured to gain time, because his year was near expiring; as he was nominated to succeed him the following year, he took upon him the command five days before the due

time, in order to march the sooner to the aid of the A.M. Messenians. Accordingly, having assembled the

3783. Achæans, whose vigour and strength had suffered by Ant. J.c.

repose and inactivity, he was defeated near Caphyia, in a great battle fought there.

Aratus was charged with being the cause of this defeat, and not without some foundation. He endeavoured to prove that the loss of the battle imputed to him was not his fault. He declared, that, however this might be, if he had been wanting in any of the duties of an able commander, he asked pardon; and intreated that his actions might be examined with less rigour than indulgence. His humility, on this occasion, changed the minds of the whole assembly, whose fury now turned against his accusers, and nothing was afterwards undertaken but by his counsel. However, the remembrance of his defeat had exceedingly damped his courage; so that he behaved as a wise citizen, rather than as an able warrior; and though the Ætolians often gave him opportunities to distress them, he took no advantage of them, but suffered that people to lay waste the whole country almost with impunity.

The Achæans were therefore forced to apply to Macedonia again, and to call in king Philip to their assistance, in hopes that the affection he bore Aratus, and the confidence he had in him, would incline that inonarch to favour them. And indeed Antigonus, at his last moments, had, above all things, intreated Philip to keep well with Aratus; and to follow his counsel, in treating with the Achæans. Some time before, he had sent him into Peloponnesus, to form himseif under his eye, and by his counsels. Aratys

gave him the best reception in his power;' treated him with the distinction due to his rank; and endeavoured to instil into him such principles and senti. ments, as inight enable him to govern with wisdom the great kingdom to which he was heir. Accordingly, that young prince returned into Macedonia with the highest sentiments of esteem for Aratus, and the most favourable disposition with regard to the welfare of Greece.

But the courtiers, whose interest it was to remove a person of Aratus's known probity, in order to have the sole ascendant over their young prince, made that nonarch suspect his conduct: and prevailed so far, as to make him declare openly against Aratus. Nevertheless, finding soon after that he had been imposed upon, he punished the informers with great severity, the sole means to banish for ever from princes that calumny, which impunity, and some. times money, raise up and arm against persons of the most consummate virtue. Philip afterwards reposed the same confidence in Aratus as he had formerly done, and resolved to be guided by his counsels only; which was manifest on several occasions, and particularly in the affair of Lacedæmonia. "That unhappy city was perpetually torn by seditions, in one of which, one of the Ephori, and a great many other citizens, were killed, because they had declared for king Philip. When that prince arrived from Macedonia, he gave audience to the ambassadors of Sparta at Tegea, whither he had sent for them. In the council he held there, several were of opinion, that he should treat that city as Alexander had treated Thebes. But the king rejected that proposal with horror, and contented himself with punishing the principal authors of the insurrection. Such an in. stance of, moderation and wisdom in a king, who was but seventeen years of age, was greatly admired; and every one was persuaded, that it was owing to

Polyb. p. 292-294.

the good counsels of Aratus. However, he did not always make the same use of them.

Being arrived at Corinth, complaints were made to him by many cities against the Ætolians; and accordingly war was unanimously declared against them. This was called the war of the allies, which began much about the same time that Hannibal was meditating the siege of Saguntum. This decree was sent to all the cities, and ratified in the general assembly of the Achæans. The Ætolians, on the other side, prepared for war, and elected Scopas their general, the principal contriver of the broils they had raised, and the havoc they had made. Philip now marched back his forces into Macedonia; and, whilst they were in winter-quarters, was very diligent in making the necessary military preparations. He endeavoured to strengthen himself by the aid of his allies, few of whom answered his views; colouring their delays with false and specious pretences. He also sent to king Ptolemy, to entreat him not to aid the Ætolians either with men or

money. A.M. "Cleomenes was at that time in Egypt; but as an

3784; horrid licentiousness prevailed in that court, and the Ant. J.c.

king regarded nothing but pleasures and excesses of every kind, Cleomenes led a very melancholy life there. Nevertheless Ptolemy, in the beginning of his reign, had made use of Cleomenes: for, as he was afraid of his brother Magas, who, on his mother's account, had great authority and power over the soldiery, he contracted a stricter amity with Cleomenes, and admitted him into his most secret councils, in which means for getting rid of his brother were consulted. Cleomenes was the only person who opposed it; he declaring, that a king cannot have any ministers more zealous for his service, or more obliged to aid him in sustaining the weighty burthen of government, than his brothers. This advice pre


* Polyb. 1. iv p. 294-299.

a Plut, in Cleom. p. 820-823,

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