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full powers to give up to Ptolemy all those provinces which were the subject of their contest, i. e. Calosyria and Palestine. Colosyria included that part of Syria which lies between the mountains Libanus and Antilibanus; and Palestine, all the country which anciently was the inheritance of the children of Israel; and the coast of these two provinces was what the Greeks called Phænicia. Antiochus consented to resign up all this country to the king of Egypt, to purchase a peace at this juncture; choosing rather to give up this part of his dominions, than hazard the losing them all. A truce was therefore agreed for twelve months; and before the expiration of that time, a peace was concluded on the same terms. Ptolenıy, who might have taken advantage of this victory for conquering all Syria, was desirous of putting an end to the war, that he might have an opportunity of devoting himself entirely to his pleasures. His subjects, knowing his want of spirit and effeminacy, could not conceive how it had been possible for him to have been so successful; and at the same time they were displeased at his having concluded a peace, by which he had tied up his hands. The discontent they conceived on this account, was the chief source of the disorders in Egypt, which at last rose to an open rebellion: So that Ptolemy, by endeavouring to avoid a foreign war, drew one upon himself in the centre of his own dominions.

Antiochus, after having concluded a peace with A.M. Ptolemy, devoted his whole attention to the war 3778.

Ant. J.C against Achæus, and made all the preparations ne

226. cessary for taking the field. At last he passed mount Taurus, and entered Asia Minor with an intention to subdue it. Here he concluded a treaty with Attalus king of Pergamus, by virtue of which they united their forces against their common enemy. They attacked him with so much vigour, that he abandoned the open country to them, and shut him

Polyb. 1. v. p. 444.


self up in Sardis, to which Antiochus laying siege, Achæus held it out above a year. He often made sallies, and a great many battles were fought under the walls of the city. At last, by a stratagem of Ligoras, one of Antiochus's commanders, Sardis was taken, Achæus retired into the citadel, where he defended himself, till he was delivered up by two traiterous Cretans. This fact confirms the truth of the preverb, which said that the “Cretans were liars and knaves*.»

Ptolemy Philopator had made a treaty with Achæus, and was very sorry for his being so closely blocked up in the castle of Sardis; and therefore commanded Sosibes to relieve him at any price what

There was then in Ptolemy's court a very cunning Cretan, Bolis by name, who had lived a considerable time at Sardis. Sosibes consulted this man, and asked whether he could not think of some method for Achæus's escape. The Cretan desired time to consider of it; and returning to Sosibes, of. fered to undertake it, and explained to him the manner in which he intended to proceed. He told him, that he had an intimate friend, who was also his near relation, Cambylus by name, a captain in the Cretan troops in Antiochus's service: that he commanded at that time in a fort behind the castle of Sardis, and that he would prevail with him to let Achæus escape that way. His project being approved, he was sent with the utmost speed to Sardis to put it execution, and ten talents were given him to defray his expences, &c. and a much more considerable sum promised him in case he succeeded. After his arrival, he communicates the affair to Cambylus, when those two miscreants agree, (for their greater a dvantage) to go and reveal their design to Antiochus. They offered that prince, as they themselves had determined, to play their parts so well,

• Polyb. I. viii. p. 522-531. * Κρητες αει ψευσαι, κακα Depia. St. Paul. Epist, ad Tit. i. 120

+ Ten thousand French crowns.

that instead of procuring Achæus's escape, they would bring him to him, upon condition of receiving a considerable reward, to be divided among them, as well as the ten talents which Bolis had already received.

Antiochus was overjoyed at what he had heard, A. M. and promised them a reward that sufficed to engage


Ant. J.C. them to do him that important service. Upon this

215. Bolis, by Cambilus's assistance, easily got admission into the castle, where the credentials he produced from Sosibes, and some other of Achæus's friends, gained him the entire confidence of that ill-fated prince. Accordingly he trusted himself to those two wretches, who, the instant he was out of the castle, seized and delivered him to Antiochus. This king caused him to be immediately beheaded, and thereby put an end to that war of Asia; for the mo. ment those who still sustained the siege heard of Achæus's death, they surrendered; and a little after, all the other places in the provinces of Asia did the sanie.

Rebels very seldom come to a good end; and though the perfidy of such traitors strikes us with horror, and raises our indignation, we are not inclined to pity the unhappy fate of Achæus, who bad made himself worthy of it by his intidelity to his sovereign.

It was about this time that the discontent of the Egyptians against Philopator began to break out. According to Polybius, it occasioned a civil war; but neither himself nor any other author gives us the particulars of it.

• We also read in Livy, that the Romans some A.M. time after sent deputies to Ptolemy and Cleopatra 3794

Ant. J.C. (doubtless the same queen who before was called Arsinoe) to renew their ancient friendship and alliance with Egypt. These carried as a present to the king,


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a robe and purple tunick, with an ivory * chair; and to the queen an embroidered robe, and a purple scarf. Such kind of presents show the happy simplicity

which in those ages prevailed among the Romans. A. M.

Philopator had at this time by up Arsinoe, his 3795. Ant. J.C.

wife and sister, a son called Ptolemy Epiphanes, who 209. succeeded him at five years of age. A.M. 'Philopator, from the signal victory he had ob3797. tained over Antiochus, had abandoned himself to Ant. J.C.

pleasures and excesses of every kind. Agathoclea 207.

his concubine, Agathocles the brother of that wo. man, and their mother, governed him entirely. He spent all his time in gaming, drinking, and the most infamous irregularities. His nights were passed in debauches, and his days in feasts and dissolute revels. Forgetting entirely the king, instead of applying bimself to the affairs of state, he valued himself upon presiding in concerts, and playing upon instruments. The women disposed of every thing. They conferred all employments and governments; and no one had less authority in the kingdom than the prince himself. Sosibes, an old, artful minister, who had served during three reigns, was at the helm, and his great experience had made him very capable of the administration; not indeed entirely in the man

• Justin. 1. xxx. C. 4. Justin. l. xxx. c. 1 & 2. Polyb. in Excerpt. Vales. l. xv. xvi.

* This was allowed in Rome to none but the highest officers in the state.

+ Justin calls her Eurydice. In case he is not mistaken, this queen had three names, Arsinoe, Cleopatra, and Eurydice. But Cleopatra was a name common to the queens of Egypt, as that of Ptolemy was to the kings. As Archbishop Usher places the adventure of Hyrcanus the Jew at the birth of Ptolemy Ephiplanes, I had inserted it there in the first edition of this work. But as Josephus, from whom it is taken, says, that it happened in the reign of Seleucus the son of Antiochus the Great, I have transferred it to that time, as Dean Prideaux does also; that is to say, to the birth of Ptolemy Philometor, 187 years before Jesus Christ.

Tribunatus, præfe&turas, & ducatus mulieres ordinabant ; nec quisquam in regno suo minus, quam ipse rex, poterat. JUSTIN.


ner he desired, but as the favourites would permit hiin to act; and he was so wicked, as to pay a blind obedience to the most unjust commands of a corrupt prince, and his unworthy favourites.

3 Arsinoe, the king's sister and wife, had no power or authority at court; the favourites and the prime minister did not shew her the least respect. On the other side, the queen was not patient enough to suffer every think without murmuring; and they at

grew weary of her complaints. The king, and those who governed him, commanded Sosibes to rid them of her. He obeyed, and employed for that purpose one Philammon, who, without doubt, did not want experience in such cruel and barbarous assassinations.

This last action added to so many more of the most flagrant nature, displeased the people so much, that Sosibes was obliged, before the king's death, to quit his employment. He was succeeded by Tlepolemus, a young man of quality, who had signalized himself in the army by his valour and conduct. He had all the voices in a grand council held for the choosing a prime minister. Sosibes resigned to him the king's seal, which was the badge of his office. Tlepolemus performed the several functions of it, and governed all the affairs of the kingdom during the king's life. But though this was not long, he discovered but too plainly that he had not all the qualities necessary for supporting so great an employment. He had neither the experience, ability, nor application of his predecessor. As he had the administration of all the finances, and disposed of all the honours and dignities of the state, and all payments passed through his hands, every body, as is usual, was assiduous in making their court to him. He was extremely liberal; but then his bounty was bestowed without choice or discernment, and almost solely on those who shared in his parties

8 Liv. 1. xxvii. c. 4.

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