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twenty-five years, and was the last of that race in: whom any true virtue and moderation was conspicuous; 'for the generality of his successors were monsters of debauchery and wickedness. The prince, whose character we are now describing, had made it his principal care* to extend his dominions to the South, from concluding the peace with Syria. Accordingly he had extended it the whole length of the Red Sea, as well along the Arabian, as the Ethiopian coasts, and even to the Straits, which form a communication with the southern ocean. He was succeeded on the throne of Egypt by his son Ptolemy,

surnamed Philopator. A. M. * Some time before this period, Rhodes suffered

3782. very considerable damages from a great earthquake: Ant. J.C. The walls of the city, with the arsenals, and the

narrow passes in the haven, where the ships of that island were laid up, were reduced to a very ruinous condition, and the famous Colossus, which was esteemed one of the wonders of the world, was thrown down and entirely destroyed. It is natural to think, that this earthquake spared neither private houses nor public structures nor even the temples of the gods. The loss sustained by it amounted to immense sums; and the Rhodians, reduced to the utmost distress, sent deputations to all the neighbouring princes, to implore their relief in that melancholy conjuncture. An emulation worthy of praise, and not to be paralleled in history, prevailed in favour of that deplorable city; and Hiero and Gelon in Sicily, and Ptolemy in Egypt, signalized themselves in a peculiar manner on that occasion. The two former of these princes contributed above an hundred talents, and erected two statues in the public place; one of which represented the people of Rhodes, and the other those of Syracuse; the former was crowned by the latter, to testify, as Polybius

i Strabo. 1. 17. p. 796,

* Monum. Adulit.

* Polyb. 1. 5. p. 428, 431. + Straits of Babelmandel,

observes, that the Syracusans thought the opportu-, nity of relieving the Rhodians a favour and obligation to themselves. Ptolemy, besides his other expences, which amounted to a very considerable sum, supplied that people with three hundred talents, a million of bushels of corn, and a sufficient quantity of timber for building ten gallies of ten benches of oars, and as many more of three benches, besides an. infinite quantity of wood for other buildings; all which donations were accompanied with three thousand talents for erecting the Colossus anew. Antigonus, Seleucus, Prusias, Mithridates, and all the princes, as well as cities, signalized their liberality on this occasion. Even private persons emulated each other in sharing in this glorious act of humanity; and historians have recorded that a lady whose name was Chryseis *, and who truly merited that appellation, furnished from her own substance an hundred thousand bushels of corn. Let the princes of these times, says Polybius, who imagine they have done gloriously in giving four or five thousand crowns, only consider how inferior their generosity is to that we have now described. Rhodes, in consequence of these liberalities, was re-established in a few years, in a more opulent and splendid state than she had ever experienced before, if we only except the Colossus.

This Colossus was a brazen statue of a prodigious size, as I have formerly observed; and some aus thors have affirmed, that the money arising from the contributions already mentioned, amounted to five times as much as the loss which the Rhodians had sustained. This people, instead of employing the sums they had received in replacing that statue according to the intention of the donors, pretended that the oracle of Delphos had forbid it, and given them a command to preserve that money for other

1 Strab. 1. xiv. p. 652.
Chryseis signifies golden.

purposes, by which they enriched themselves. The Colossus lay neglected on the ground, for the space of eight hundred and ninety-four years; at the ex. piration of which (that is to say, in the six hundred and fifty third year of our Lord) Moawyas*, the sixth Caliph or emperor of the Saracens, made himself master of Rhodes, and sold this statue to a Jewish merchant, who loaded nine hundred camels with the metal; which, computed by eight quintals for each load, after a deduction of the diminution the statue had sustained by rust, and very probably by theft, amounted to more than thirty-six thousand pounds sterling, or seven thousand two hundred quintals.

Zonar. Jub, regno Constantis Imperat, & Cedrenus,

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Sect. I. Ptolemy Philopator reigns in Egypt.

The short reign of Seleucus Ceruunus. He is succeeded by his brother Antiochus, surnamed the Great. Achaus's fidelity to him. Hermias, his chief minister, first removes Epigenes, the ablest of all his generals, and afterwards puts him to death. Antiochus subdues the rebels in the East. He rids himself of Hermias. He attempts to recover Cælosyria from Ptolemy Philopator, and possesses himself of the strongest cities in it. After a short truce, a war breaks out again in Syria. Battle of Raphia, in which Antiochus is entirely defeated. The anger and revenge of Philopator against the Jews, for refusing to let him enter the sanctuary. Antiochus concludes a peace with Plolemy. He turns his arms against Achæus, who had rebelled. lle at last seizes him

treacherously, and puts him to death, * I obseryep in the preceding book, that Ptolemy A.M. Ppilopator had succeeded Ptolemy Evergetes, his 3778. father, in Egypt. On the other side, Seleucus Cal- Ant. J. C,

226. linicus was dead in Parthia. He had left two sons,

- Polyb. I. iv. p. 315. & l. v. p. 386. Hieron. in Daniel. Appian. in Syriac. p. 131. Justin. 1. xix. c. 1.

Seleucus and Antiochus; and the first, who was the elder, succeeded to his father's throne, and assumed the surname of KEPAYNOE (Ceraunus) or the Thunder, which no way suited his character; for he was a very weak prince both in body and mind, and never did any actions that corresponded with the idea of that name. His reign was short, and his authority but ill established, either in the army or the provinces. What prevented his losing it entirely was, that Achæus, his cousin, son to Andromachus, his mother's brother, a man of courage and abilities, assumed the management of his affairs, which his father's ill conduct had reduced to a very low ebb. As for Andromachus, he was taken by Ptolemy, in a war with Callinicus, and kept prisoner in Alexandria, during all his reign, and part of the

following A. M. Attalus king of Pergamus having seized upon all

3780. Asia Minor, from mount Taurus as far as the HelAnt. J.C.

lespont, Seleucus marched against him, and left Her224

mias the Carian regent of Syria. Achæus accompanied him in that expedition, and did him all the

good services the ill state of his affairs would admit. A.M. Having no money to pay the forces, and the king

3781, being despised by the soldiers for his weakness, NiAnt. J. C.

canor and Apaturius, two of the chief officers, formed a conspiracy against him during his absence in Phry. gia, and poisoned him. However, Achæus revenged that horrid action, by putting to death the two ringleaders, and all who had engaged in their plot. He acted afterwards with so much prudence and valour with regard to the army, that he kept the soldiers in their obedience; and prevented Attalus from taking advantage of this accident, which, but for his excellent conduct, would have lost the Syrian empire all it still possessed on that side.

Seleucus dying without children, the army offered the crown to Achæus, and several of the provinces did the same. However, he had the generosity to refuse it at that time, though he afterwards thought


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