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though Apania employed all her efforts to save him, and even covered him with her own body. Berenice, after this, went to Egypt, where her marriage with Ptolemy was consummated, and Apania was sent to her brother Antiochus Theos, in Syria.

* The princess had the art to exasperate her brother A. M. so effectually against Ptolemy, that she at last spirited 3748. him up to a war, which continued for a long space

Ant. j. c. of time, and was productive of fatal consequences to

256, Antiochus, as will be evident in the sequel.

* Ptolemy did not place himself at the head of A.M. his army, his declining state of health not permitting 3749. bim to expose himself to the fatigues of a campaign, Ant. J.C. and the inconveniences of a camp; for which reason

255 he left the war to the conduct of his generals. Antiochus, who was then in the flower of his age, took the field at the head of all the forces of Babylon and the East, and with a resolution to carry on the war with the utmost vigour. History has not preserved the particulars of what passed in that campaign, or perhaps the advantages obtained on either side were not very considerable.

Ptolemy did not forget to improve his library, A.M. notwithstanding the war, and continually enriched 3750. it with new books. He was exceedingly curious

Ant. J.C. in pictures and designs by great masters.

Aratus, the famous Sicyonian, was one of those who collected for him in Greece; and he had the good fortune to gratify the taste of that prince for those works of art to such a degree, that Ptolemy enter, tained a friendship for him, and presented him with twenty-five talents, which he expended in the relief of the necessitous Sicyonians, and in the redemption of such of them as were detained in captivity.

While Antiochus was employed in his war with, A. M. Egypt, a great insurrection was fomented in the 3754. East, and which his remoteness at that time ren Ant. J.C.




* Hieron. in Daniel. Strab. 1. xvii. p. 789. Hieron. in Daniel. Plut. in Arat, p. 103!.

dered him incapable of preventing with the necessary expedition. The revolt, therefore, daily gathered strength, till it at last became incapable of remedy. These troubles gave birth to the Parthian empire.

*The cause of these commotions proceeded from Agathocles, governor of the Parthian dominions for Antiochus. This officer attempted to offer violence to a youth of the country, whose name was Tiridates; upon which Arsaces, the brother of the boy, a person of low extraction, but great courage and honour, assembled some of his friends, in order to deliver his brother from the brutality intended him. They accordingly fell upon the governor, killed him on the spot, and then fled for safety with several persons whom they had drawn together for their defence against the pursuit to which such a bold proceeding would inevitably expose them. Their party grew so numerous, by the negligence of Antiochus, that Arsaces soon found himself strong enough to drive the Macedonians out of that province, and assume the government himself

. The Macedonians had always continued masters of it, from the death of Alexander; first, under Eumenes, then under Antigonus, next under Seleucus Nicator, and lastly under Antiochus.

Much about the same time, Theodotus also revolted in Bactriana, and, from a governor, became king of that province; after which he subjected the thousand cities it contained, while Antiochus was amusing himself with the Egyptian war; and strengthened himself so effectually in his new acquisitions, that it became impossible to reduce him afterwards. This example was followed by all the other nations in those parts, each of whom threw off the yoke at the same time; by which means Antiou chas lost all the eastern provinces of -his empire be

* Arrian. in Parth. apud. Phot. Cod. 58. Syncell. p.: 284 Justin. l. xli. c. 4. Strab. 1. xi. p. 515.

Justin. & Strab. ibid,

yond the Tigris. This event happened according to Justin, when L. Manlius Vulso, and M. Atilius Regulus*, were consuls at Rome; that is to say, the fourteenth year of the first Punic war.

* The troubles and revolts in the East, made An- A.M. tiochus at last desirous to disengage himself from 3755; the war with Ptolemy. A treaty of peace was ac

Ant. J.C.

249. cordingly concluded between them; and the conditions of it were, that Antiochus should divorce Laodice, and espouse Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy; that he should also dişinherit his issue by the first marriage, and secure the crown to his children by the second. Antiochus, after the ratification of the treaty, repudiated Laodice, though she was his sister by the father's side, and had brought him two sons: Ptolemy then embarked at Pelusium, and conducted his daughter to Seleucia, a maritime city, near the mouth of the Orontes, a river of Syria. Antiochus came thither to receive his bride, and the nuptials were solemnized with great magnificence. Ptolemy had a tender affection for his daugh ter, and gave orders to have regular supplies of water from the Nile transmitted to her; believing it better for her health than any other water whatever, and therefore he was desirous she should drink none but that. When marriages are contracted from no other motives than political views, and are founded on such unjust conditions, they are generally attended with calamities and fatal events.

These particulars of the marriage of Antiochus with the daughter of Ptolemy were evidently foretold by the prophet Daniel. I shall here repeat the be. ginning of this prophecy, which has already been explained elsewhere, that the reader may at once behold and admire the prediction of the greatest events in history, and their literal accomplishment at the appointed time, • Hieron. in Dan. X. Polyæn. Strab. I. viü. c. 50' Atheng

* In all these fasts he is called C. Atilius,

1. ii. p. 45.

all against

Fit I will now show thee the truth.” These words were spoken to Daniel, on the part of God, by the man clothed in linen. “ Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia;" namely, Cyrus, who was then upon the throne; his son Cambyses; and Darius, the son of Hystaspes. And the fourth shall be far richer than they all: And by his strength through his riches he shall stir

up the realm of Greece.” The monarch here meant was Xerxes, who invaded Greece with a very formidable army.

3“ And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.” In this part of the prophecy we may easily trace Alexander the Great.

bo And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken (by his death) and shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: For his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those;" namely, beside the four greater princes. We have already seen the vast empire of Alexander* parcelled out into four great kingdoms ; without including those foreign princes who founded other kingdoms in Cappadocia, Armenia, Bithynia, Heraclea, and on the Bosphorus. All this was present to Daniel,

The prophet then proceeds to the treaty of peace, and the marriage we have already mentioned.

1• The king of the South shall be strong, one of his princes, and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion. And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the South shall come to the king of the North to make an agreement: but he shall not retain the power of


Ver. 4.


Dan. xi. 2. & Dan. xi. 3.

i Ver.

S, • Tum maximum in terris Macedonium regnum nomenque, inde morte 'Alexandri distractum in multa regna, dum ad se quisque opes rapiwoes lacerantes viribus. Liv. l. xlv. 8. 9.

the arm, neither shall be stand, nor his arm; but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.”

It will be necessary to observe, that Daniel, in this passage, and through all the remaining part of the chapter before us, confines himself to the rings of Egypt and Syria, because they were the only princes who engaged in wars against the people of God.

k" The king of the South shall be strong.” This king of the South was Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, king of Egypt; and the king of the North was Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria. And, indeed, such was their exact situation with respect to Judæa, which has Syria to the North, and Egypt to the South.

According to Daniel, the king of Egypt, who first reigned in that country after the death of Alexander, was Ptolemy Soter, whom he calls the king of the South, and declares, that he shall be strong. The exactness of this character is fully justified by what we have seen in his history: for he was master of Egypt, Libya, Cyrenaica, Arabia, Palæstine, Cælosyria, and most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor ; with the island of Cyprus; as also several isles in the Ægean sea, which is now called the Archipelago; and even some cities of Greece, as Sicyon and Corinth.

The prophet, after this, mentions another of the four successors to this empire, whom he calls Princes, or Governors. This was Seleucus Nicator, the king of the North; of whom he declares, “ that he should be more powerful than the king of the South, and his dominion more extensive;" For this is the import of the prophet's expression, “ he shall be strong above him, and have dominion.” It is easy to prove, that his territories were of greater ex

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