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and she accordingly took measures to destroy him. Philateres, who was sensible of her intentions, resolved upon a revolt, and succeeded in his design, by the protection of Seleucus ; after which he supported himself in the possession of the city and treasures of Lysimachus; favoured in his views by the troubles which arose upon the death of that prince, and that of Seleucus, which happened seven months after. He conducted his affairs with so inuch art and capacity, amidst all the divisions of the successors of those two princes, that he preserved the city, with all the country around it, for the space of twenty years, and formed it into a state, which subsisted for several generations in his family, and became one of the most potent states of Asia. He had two brothers, Eumenes and Attalus, the former of whom, who was the eldest, had a son named also Eumenes, who succeeded his uncle, and reigned twenty-two years,

In this year began the first Punic war, which continued for the space of twenty-four years, between

the Romans and the Carthaginians. 'A, M. Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, having built a city

3742. near the place where Astacus, which Lysimachus deAnt. J.C.

stroyed, had formerly stood, called it Nicomedia, 262, from his own name.

Great mention is made of it in the history of the Lower Empire, because several of the Roman emperors resided there.

Antiochus Soter was desirous to improve the death of Philateres to his own advantage, and take that opportunity to seize his dominions; but Eumenes, his nephew and successor, raised a fine army for his defence, and obtained such a complete victory over him near Sardis, as not only secured him the possession of what he already enjoyed, but enabled him to enlarge his dominions considerably.

• Pausan. Eliac. 1. p. 405. Euseb. in Chron. Trebell. Pollio in Gallien. Ammian. Marcell. l. xxii. c. 9. Memn. c. xxi, Strab. 1. xiii. p. 624

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'Antiochus returned to Antioch after this defeat, A. M. where he ordered * one of his sons to be put to death, 3743,

Ant. J. C. for raising a commotion in his absence, and caused

261. the other, whose name was the same as his own, to be proclaimed king; shortly after which he died, and left him all his dominions. This young prince was his son by Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius, who, from his mother-in-law became his consort, as I have formerly observed.

9 Antiochus the son, when he came to the crown, was espoused to Laodice, his sister by the father. 3744, He afterward assumed the surname of Theos, which

Ant. J. C.

260. signifies God, and distinguishes him, at this day, from the other kings of Syria, who were called by the name of Antiochus. The Milesians were the first who conferred it upon him, to testify their gratitude for his delivering them from the tyranny of Timarchus, governor of Caria under Ptolemy Philadelphus, who was not only master of Egypt, but of Cælosyria, and Palestine, with the provinces of Ci. ļicia, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Caria, in Asia Minor. Timarchus revolted from his sovereign, and chose Miletus for the seat of his residence. The Milesians, in order to free themselves from this tyrant, had recourse to Antiochus, who defeated and killed him. In acknowledgment for which they rendered him divine bonours, and even conferred upon him the title of God. With such impious flattery was it usual to treat the reigning princes of those ages! : The Lemnians had likewise bestowed the same title on his father and grand-father, and did not scruple to erect temples to their honour; and the people of Smyrna were altogether as absequious to his mother Stratonice.

Trog. in Prologo. 1. xxvi. 9 Polyæn. Stratag. I. viii. c. 50. Appian in Syriac. p. 230. Justin. I. xxvii. c. 1.

Athen. I. vi. p. 255. • M. La Nauze affirms, that there is an error in this abridgement of Trogus Pompeius. The reader may consalt Tom. VII. of the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions.

• Berosus, the famous historian of Babylon, fou'rished in the beginning of this prince's reign, and dedicated his history to him. Pliny informs us, that it contained the astronomical observations of four hundred and eighty years. When the Macedonians were masters of Babylon, Berosus made himself acquainted with their language, and went first to Cos, which had been rendered famous by the birth of Hippocrates, and there established a school, in which he taught astronomy and astrology. From Cos he proceeded to Athens, where, notwithstanding the vanity of his art, he acquired so much reputation by his astrological predictions, that the citizens erected a statue to him, with a tongue of gold, in the Gymnasium, where the youths performed all their exercise. Josephus and Eusebius have transmitted to us some excellent fragments of this history, that illustrate several pássages in the Old Testament, and without which it would be impossible to trace any

exact succession of the Kings of Babylon. A.M.

Ptolemy being solicitous to enrich his kingdom, 3745. conceived an expedient to draw into it all the mariAnt. J. C. time commerce of the East; which, till then, had 259.

been in the possession of the Tyrians, who transacted it by sea, as far as Elath; and from thence, by land to Rhinocorura, and from this last place by sea again, to the city of Tyre. Elath and Rhinocorura were two sea-ports; the first on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and the second on the extremity of the Mediterranean, between Egypt and Palestine, and near the mouths of the river of Egypt.

"Ptolemy, in order to draw this commerce into his own kingdom, thought it necessary to found a city on the western shore of the Red-sea, from whence the ships were to set out. He accordingly built it almost on the frontiers of Ethiopia, and gave it the

- Tatian. in Orat. con. Græc. p. 171, Plin. 1, vii. c. 56.

Vitruv. 9. 7.

i Plin. 737

• Strab. xxvii. p. 815. Plin. l. vi. Ç. 23,

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name of his mother Berenice; but the port not being very commodious, that of Myos-Hormos was preferred as being very near, and much better; and all the commodities of Arabia, India, Persia, and Ethiopia, were conveyed thither. From thence they were transported on camels to Coptus, where they were again shipped, and brought down the Nile to Alex. andria, which transmitted them to all the West, in exchange for its merchandise, which was afterwards exported to the East. But as the

But as the passage from Coptus to the Red sea lay across the desarts, where no water could be procured, and which had neither cities nor houses to lodge the caravans; Ptolemy, in order to remedy this inconvenience, caused a canal to be opened along the great road, and to communicate with the Nile that supplied it with water, On the edge of this canal houses were erected, at proper distances, for the reception of passengers, and to supply them and their beasts of burthen with all necessary accommodations.

As useful as all these labours were, Ptolemy did not think them sufficient; for, as he intended to engross all the traffic between the East and West into his dominions, he thought his plan would be imperfect, unless he could protect what he had facilitated in other respects. With this view, he caused two fleets to be fitted out, one for the Red-sea, and the other for the Mediterranean. This last was extremely fine, and some of the vessels which composed it, much exceeded the common size. Two of thein, in particular, had thirty benches of oars; one twenty; four rowed with fourteen; two with twelve; fourteen with eleven; thirty with nine; thirty-seven with seven; five with six, and seventeen with five. The number of the whole amounted to an hundred and twelve vessels. He had as many more, with four and three benches of oars, beside a prodigious number of small vessels. With

Theocrit, Idyll, xvii, Athen, I. v. p, 203.

this formidable fleet he not only protected his com-7 merce from all insults; but kept in subjection, as long as he lived, most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor, as Cilicia, for instance, with Pamphylia,

Lycia, and Caria as far as the Cyclades. A.M.

Magas, king of Cyrene and Libya, growing very 3746., aged and infirn, caused overtures of accommodaAnt. J. C. tion to be tendered to his brother Ptolemy, with the 258.

proposal of a marriage between Berenice, his only daughter, and the eldest son of the king of Egypt; and a promise to give her all his dominions for her dowry. The negociation succeeded, and a peace

was concluded on those terms. A. M. Magas, however, died before the execution of

3747. the treaty, having continued in the government of Ant. J.C. Libya, and Cyrenaica, for the space of fifty years. 257

Toward the close of his days he abandoned himself to pleasure, and particularly to excess at his table, which greatly impaired his health. His widow Apania, whom Justin calls Arsinoe, resolved, after his death, to break off her daughter's marriage with the son of Ptolemy, as it had been concluded without her consent. With this view, she employed persons in Macedonia to invite Demetrius, the uncle of king Antigonus Gonatus, to come to her court, assuring him, at the same time, that her daughter and crown should be his. Demetrius arrived there in a short time, but as soon as Apania beheld him, she contracted a violent passion for him, and resolved to espouse him herself. From that nioment he neglected the daughter, to engage himself to the mother; and as he imagined that her favour raised him above all things, he began to treat the young princess, as well as the ministers and officers of the army, in such an insolent and imperious manner, that they formed a resolution to destroy him. Berenice herself con. ducted the conspirators to the door of her mother's apartment, where they stabbed him in his bed,

Athen. l. xii. p. 550. Justin. l. xxvi. c, 3:

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