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in cookery. Van Rheede calls it Ambadò or Ambalam; and, as he describes it with five or fix styles, it is wonderful, that Hill should have supposed it a Chrysobalanus.
47. He'MASA'GARA ; or the Sea of Gold.
parted; divisions, egged, acute. Nectary, one minute concave scale
at the base of each germ. STAM. Filaments eight, adhering to the tube ; four, just emerging
from its mouth; four, alternate, shorter. Anthers erect, small, fur
rowed. Pist. Germs four, conical. Styles, one from each germ, awled,
longer than the filaments. Stigmas simple. Per. Capsules four, oblong, pointed, bellied, one-valved, bursting
longitudinally within. Seeds numerous, minute. Panicles terminal. Flowers of the brightest gold-colour. Leaves thick,
succulent, jagged, dull sea-green. Stem jointed, bending, in part recumbent. This plant flowers for many months annually in Bengal: in one blossom out of many, the numbers were ten and five; but the filaments alternately long and short.
MADHU'CA: Syn. Gurapuspa, Madbudruma, Vánaprastha, Madhusht' bila, Madbu. Vulg. Maüyála, Mabuyá, Mabwa. Linn. Longleaved BASSIA.
49. CAHLA'R A :
49. CAHLA RA: *
series green without, imitating an interior calyx. STAM. Filaments more than forty ; below flat, broad ; above narrow,
channelled within, smooth without; the outer series erect, the inner somewhat converging. Anthers awled, erect; some coloured like
Pist. Germ large, orbicular, flat at the top ; with many (often seven
teen) furrows externally, between which arise as many processes, converging toward the stigma: the disk, marked with as many furrowed rays from the center, uniting on the margin with the converging processes. Stigma roundish, rather compressed, sessile in the
center of the disk, permanent. Per. Berry, in the form of the germ expanded, with sixteen or seven
teen cells. Seeds very numerous, minute, roundish. Flowers beautifully azure ;
when full blown, more diluted ; less fragrant than the red or rosecoloured, but with a delicate scent. Leaves radical, very large, subtargeted, hearted, deeply scollop-toothed. On one side dark purple, reticulated, or the other, dull green, smooth. Petiols very smooth and long, tubular. The seeds are eaten, as well as the bulb of the root, called Sálúca ; a name applied by Rheede to the whole plant, though the word Camala, which belongs to another Linnæan species
* According to the sacred Grammar, this word was written Cablbára, and pronounced as Callara, would be in ancient British. When the flowers are red, the plant is called Hallaca and Rasta Sandbaca.
of Nymphæa, be clearly engraved on his plate in Nágarà letters. There is a variety of this species with leaves purplish on both sides ; flowers dark crimson, calycine petals richly coloured internally, and anthers flat, furrowed, adhering to the top of the filaments : the petals are more than fifteen, less pointed and broader than the blue, with little odour.
The true Lotos of Egypt is the NYMPHÆA Nilufer, which in Sanscrit has the following names.or epithets : PADMA, Nalina, Aravinda, Mahotpala, Camala, Cusímaya, Sahasrapatra, Sárasa, Pancéruha, Támarafa, Sarasiruha, Rájiva, Vis'aprasúna, Pushcara, Ambhóruha, satapatra. The new blown flowers of the rose-coloured PADMA, have a most agreeable fragrance; the white and yellow have less odour : the blue, I am told, is a native of Cashmir and Perhia.
The delineation of this charming and celebrated plant, exhibited by Van Rheede, is very correct, but rather on too large a scale: no material change can be made it its natural character given by LINNÆUS; but, from an attentive examination of his two Species, I suspect them to be varieties only, and am certain, that his trivial names are merely different
ways of expressing the same word. The strong aromatick scent of the gold-coloured Champac is thought offensive to the bees, who are never seen on its blossoms; but their elegant appearance on the black hair of the Indian woman is mentioned by RUMPHIUS; and both facts have supplied the Sanscrit poets with elegant allusions. Of the wild Champac, the leaves are lanced or lance-oblong; the three leaflets
the calyx, green, oval, concave; the petals constantly fix, creamcoloured, fleshy, concave, with little scent; the three exterior, inverseegged; the three interior, more narrow, shorter pointed, converging ; the anthers clubbed, closely set round the base of the imbricated germs, and with them forming a cone ; the stigmas, minute, jagged.
Both Mr. Marsden and Rumphius mention the blue Champac as a rare flower highly prized in Sumatra and Java ; but I should have suspected, that they meant the KÆMPFERIA Bhúchampac, if the Dutch naturalist had not asserted, that the plant, which bore it, was a tree resembling the Champaca with yellow blossoms : he probably, never had seen it ; and the Bráhmens of this province insist, that it flowers only in paradise.
51. De'vadA'RU :
52. PARNA'SA :
The Natural Character as in LINNÆUS.
See 10 H. M. p. 173. It is wonderful, that RHEEDE has exhibited no delineation of a shrub so highly venerated by the Hindus, who have given one of its, names to a sacred grove of their Parnassus on the banks of the Yamunà : he describes it, however, in general terms, as resembling another of his Tolaffis
(for so he writes the word, though Tulasi be clearly intended by his Negarà letters); and adds, that it is the only Species reputed holy, and dedicaled to the God VISHNU, I should, consequently, have taken it for the Holy OCYNUM of Linnæus, if its odour, of which that species is said to be nearly destitute, had not been very aromatick and grateful ; but it is more probably a variety of that species, than of the Small-flowered, which resembles it a little in fragrance : whatever be its Linnæan appellation, if it have any, the following are the only remarks that I have yet had leisure to make on it.
Stem one or two feet high, mostly incurved above ; knotty, and rough,
below. Branchlets cross-armed, channelled. Leaves opposite, rather small, egged, pointed, acutely sawed ; purple veined, beneath ; dark, above. Petiols dark purple, downy. Racemes terminal; Flowers verticilled threefold, or fivefold, cross-armed; verticils from seven to fourteen ; Peduncles dark purple, channelled, villous; bracts sessile, roundish, concave, reflected. Calyx, with its upper lip orbicular, deeply concave externally. Corol bluish purple. The whole plant has a dulky purplish hue approaching to black, and thence perhaps, like the large black bee of this country, it is held sacred to CRISHNA ; though a fable, perfectly Ovidian, be told in the Puranas concerning the metamorphosis of the nymph Tulasi, who was beloved by the pastoral God, into the shrub, which has since borne her name : it may not be improper to add, that the White OcYMUM is in Sanscrit called Arjaca.
vérácshì. Some read Mógbá and Cálást báli. Vulg. Párald, Pàrali, Párul. LINN, BIGNONIA. Chelonoides?