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ازمایش ,praile ستایش ,redt اسایش to the contracted participle, as ش

cu reft, , ! temptation. The letter | elif added to some adjectives makes them abstract nouns,

warm, Low ; warmth. Nouns denoting the place of any thing are formed by the termina

, , , o , > já



ja, as جا gah, or نگاه ,zar زار ,dan دان ,iftan استان tions

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The learner must remember, that when these compounds are used as

* The five firit of these names are the titles of as many excellent books : the Beharistán and Gulistán are poetical compositions by Jami and Sâdi ; the Negarifián is a very entertaining miscel. lany in prose and verse ; and the Shekerdân is a miscellaneous work in Arabick upon the history of Egypt: as to the Sumbulistân, I have seen it quoted, but recollect neither the subject, nor the name of its author. The Greeks sometimes gave these flowery titles to their books ; thus Pamphilus published a treatise on different subjects, which he called Aequên liiva a meadow ; and Apoftolius compiled an 'Iwa ulj dweis a garden of violets, or a collection of proverbs and sentences.


distinct fubftantives, the termination ul of the plural, and ly of the oblique case, must be added to the end of them, as

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.a girl stith Naeeet lips( شیرین دهن .Sing. Nom

شیرین دهنا .Obl شیرین دهنان .Plur. Nom اشیرین دهنانرا .Obl


girls with sweet lips.

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The Persian verbs are compounded either with nouns and adjectives, or with prepositions and other particles. The verbs chiefly used in the

s , , , frike, ! ,


to داشتن ,to bring آوردن ,to do كردن first fort of compofition are to زدن ,to devour خوردن ,to order فرمولن ,to make ساختن ,babe ,to become کردیدن or گشتن ,to Jeon نمودن ,to bear بردن ,Jarike to find. The یافتن to take, and شرفتن ,to Jee دیدن ,to come آمدن


most common of these is wv, s which is joined in all its inflexions to a multitude of Arabick gerunds or verbal nouns, as well as to Persian adjectives and participles, as

.ikrar kerden to confidi اقرار کردن
.intizar kerden to expec انتظار کردن

.rujda kerden to return رجوع کردن
,temam kerden to complete تہام کردن
.por kerden to fll پر کردن
.terk kerden to leare ترک کردن (طلوع کردن


Thus Hafiz,

صبكست ساقیا قدحي پر شراب كن دور فلک درنك ندارد شتاب كن خورشید می ز مشرقی ساغر طلوع كل شكر بر عیش میطلبي ترك خواب كن

It is morning ; boy, fill the cup with wine: the rolling heaven makes

no delay, therefore hasten. The sun of the wine rises from the east of the

cup : if thou feekeft the delights of mirth, leave thy fleep.

.hujim averden to ajault هجوم آوردن

.yad averden to remember یاد آوردن .ajeb dathten to sonder عجب داشتن .mazir dashten to excure معذور داشتن

.heted berden to enly حسد بردن itikad berden to believe اعتقال برکن

.ghemm khorden to grieve غم خوردن .feugend khorden to rabear دوگند خوردن .rathen fakhten to enlighten روشن ساختن

.ter fakhten to mailten تر ساختن .iltifat numdden to effeem التفات نهولن



cuüs ügt cho medhûch geshten to be astonished.

.gemnak gerdden to be afisted غمناک كردیدن

.pedeed ameden to appear پدید آمدن .ihfan deeden to be benefited احسان لیکن .perverith yaften to be educated پرورش یافتن

.kerir griften to be confirmed قرار گرفتن


-are very frequently uted in compo فرمولن and زدن The verbs -fikr fer فکر فرمودن ,nareh zeden to call aloud نعره زدن fition, as

múden to consider ; thus Geláleddîn Rúzbehár,


تا بعد تو نعره زد بلبل ههه كوشم چون درخت كل

While the nightingale fings thy praises with a loud voice, I am all ear

like the stalk of the rose-tree,

and Hafiz,

فكر معقول بغما گل بی خار کجاست

Consider attentively; where is a rose without a thorn?

Some of the particles, with which verbs are compounded, are significant, and others redundant and ornamental, as

.der ameden to enter در آمدن .der averden to carry ain دراورلن .der khaften to require درخواستن .der yaften to undertand سریافتن .ber ameden to alcend بر آمدن برگشتن

.ber afiden to ref بر آسودن .baz dashten to eith-bold بازداشتن .furid ameden to descend فرود آمدن

ber geshten to return.

واپس .vapes dathten to detain واپس داشتن

سر دادن

ser dáden to banish, to confine to a place.

is inserted

In the present tense of a compound verb the particle between the two words of which it is composed, as

مي .to fll پرکردن

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Sometimes the two words of which a verb is compounded are placed at a great distance from each other, as

صبا بلطف بثوان غزال رعنارا که سر بکوه و بیابان تو دال مارا

“ O western breeze, say thus to yon tender fawn, thou hast confined us

، to the hills and deferts.”

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-to confine, releguer, is fepa. سردادن preterite of


rated by three words. The noun has a number of different senses, and is therefore the most difficult word in the Persian language ; it signifies the head, the top, the point, the principal thing, the air, depre, love, will, intention, &c. and sometimes its meaning is so vague that it seems a mere expletive, though the Persians undoubtedly feel its force.




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