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.fiah cheshm black-eyed سیاه چشم


The compounds of this form are very numerous, and may be invented at pleasure.

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پري روي peri peyker پري پیکر

şey 65peri ruyi ļ with the face of an angel.

) Juss ja peri rukhsâr with the cheeks of an angel. w churinz Gemshid kulâh with the diadem of Gemshia. Cogna Lulu Dara hishmet with the troops of Darius.

simeen sâk with legs like filver. Wylü Theker leb with lips of sugar.

باق بدنيين

.tuti guftar talking like a parrot طوطي كفتار

Wapis guncheh leb with lips like rose-buds.

.femen bayi abith the Scent of je[/amine سن بوي

تین بر

rozw semen ber with a bofom like jessamine.
Ci gulrokh with cheeks like roses.
Sgið gulruyi with a rosy face.
Seulüne mujhk buyi with the scent of muk.

.yakit leb noith lips like rubies ياقوت لب .theer dil zoith the heart of a lion شیردل


When we consider the vast number of epithets that may be compounded after these three forms, and that those epithets are often used .for substantives without a noun being expressed, we must allow that the Persian language is the richest in the world. These compounds are thought so beautiful by the Persian poets, that they sometimes fill a diftich with them, as

ماه روي مشکبوي دلکشی جان فراي دلفريبي مهوشي

A damsel with a face like the moon, scented like musk, a ravisher of

hearts, delighting the soul, seducing the senses, beautiful as the full


The particle pued hem together, prefixed to nouns, forms another elegant class of compounds implying society and intimacy, as

whilo hemâlhiyán of the same neft.

,hemaheng of the fame inclination هماهنگ

pjes os hembezm of the fame banquet. süngo hempister lying on the fame pillow. algsind hemkhâbeh seeping together. pohod hemdem breathing together, that is,

very intimately connected.


The particles Li not, little

, and !

without, are placed before nouns to denote privation, as cholli ná umeéd hopeless, cu liñ Li ná shinâs ignorant, aüeti li ná fhu kûfteh a rose not yet blown ;






kembeha of little value, dës J kem akil with little fense ; uto bee bâk fearless, whol ç! bee amân merciless: this particle is often

bee támmul inconhderate, bee terteeb irregular.



بعد ازین نام ترا در هرکجا خواهم نوشت بي حقيقت بي مروت بي وفا خواهم نوشت

Henceforth, wherever I write thy name, I will write false, unkind, and

faithless. .

سازنده as ,نده Names of agents are generally participles active in gar, or نار ,ger نگر fazendeh a compfer; or they are formed by adding

باغبان ,a coriter قلنار ,a goldfinith زرگر ban, to a fibtantive, as بان

coming and آمد و شد ,buying and falling خرید و فروخت

, a ;

, a ; a a , a gardener. .

Nouns of action are often the same with the third person preterite of a verb, as

, g going. Adjectives implying poffefsion or plenty are formed by adding to

, , , , , ,


, , nouns form likewise adjectives of poffeffion, as Juogo majestick, dig, , ,

وار ,nak ناك ,mend مند ,keen كين ,far سار nouns the terminations ,learned دانشمند ,Jorrorefaul غمكين ,ballful شرمسار ver, as ور var or .baring life جانور ,hopeful امیدوار ,venomous زهناك ehl prefixed to اهل fahyb, and صاهب ,zu ذو The Arabick words , و جلال اهل حكت ,beautiful, venustate praditus صاحب جهال ,mitate praditus

,Shujaheddoula شجع الدوله سراج الدوله ,Shemfeddoula شمس الدوله ,Nejmeddoula نجم الدوله

wise, fapientiâ præditus. We may here observe, that the Indians use a great variety of phrases purely Arabick, some as proper names and titles of chiefs and princes, and others as epithets or constant adjuncts to substantives ; such are the names

, Serájeddoula, which fignify in Arabick the force, the star, the sun, and the lamp of the state ; such also is the title which they gave Lord Clive, Glöckej Zubdatulmulk the flower of the kingdom ; in the same manner they feldom mention the province of alü, Bengála without adding, by way of epithet, WI co jennetulbelâd the paradise of regions, an Arabick title given to that province by wuj etj Aurengzeeb.

Some adjectives are formed from nouns by adding was Just fiery, wusj golden, wudzoj made of emeralds. The termination ail added to substantives forms adverbs that imply a

a , rageously, like a man of courage.

, vesh, to substantives, as wł

, musk

; ; like a rose-bud, vüg röor vüggo like the moon.

Some adjectives and adverbs are formed by nouns doubled with the letter | elif between them, as Çill up to the brim, jw.ww from the be


مردانه ,prudently, like a prudent man دانایانه kind of fimilitude, as


وش fa, or سا ,afa آسا Adjectives of fimilitude are formed by adding عنبر مشك آسا ,amber afa like ambergris غنچه وش ; like magick سحر سا ; like paradife جنت آسا ,like mulk

مهوش or ,a

سراسر لبالب

.many-coloured گوناگون or رنگارنگ ,ginning to the end



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A garden, in which were the clearest rivulets, an orchard in which the

notes of the birds were melodious ; the one was full of many-coloured tulips, the other full of fruits with various hues.

The two first lines of this tetrastich are in pure Arabick.

The termination pli fám, as well as

goon, denotes colour, as گون

.emerald-coloured زمرد نام ,rele-coloured شون on گلفام


From the compounds above mentioned, or any other adjectives, compounded or simple, may be formed abstract substantives by adding S, as

,bahful شرمسار ,learned دانشند

,black سیاه

/ba/file شرمساري .learning دانشمندي

.blackne/i سياهي


.mguelty بیکانکی ,neu بیکانه as کی neces

If the adjective end in g the abstract is made by changing into

novelty Other abstracts are made either by adding jl to the third person of

motion ; or by adding رفتار ,Jpeech فتار ,fight دیدار the patt tenfe, as


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