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"It is evident to the difcerning and intelligent part of mankind, that, "whenever the affairs of the world are thrown into confufion, and "fortune favours the defires of the unjust, the great Difpofer of

events, in the effufion of his endless mercy, felects fome fortunate "hero, whom he fupports with his eternal favour: and whom he "commands to heal with the balm of benevolence the wounds of "the afflicted, and to fweeten the bitter draught of their misfortunes "with the honey of juftice."


-per پردازد ,in which period the words kerded,

dázed, and ›jl... fázed, are the aorifts of

conjunction & that.




fakhten, governed by the ساختن perdakhten, and پرداختن ,kerden

هي or مي The prefent tenfe is formed by prefixing : be knorwetb میداند ,thou knower ميداني ,I know میدانم

to the aorift,

اي باد صبا بكذر آنجا كه تو ميداني و احوال دلم به كو پيدا كه تو ميداني

O gentle gale, pafs by the place which thou knoweft, and difclofe the fecrets of my heart which thou knowest.

زین خوش رقم كه بر گل رخسار ميكشي خط بر صحیفه كل كلزار ميكشي



With that fweet hue which thou beareft on the rofe of thy cheek, thou

draweft a line over the face of the garden-rofe.

The particles and are fometimes joined to the verb, and fometimes feparated from it, according to the pleasure of the writer, as




بعيش كوش كه تا چشم ميزني برهم خزان همیرسد و نوبهار مي گذرد

Pursue thy pleasures eagerly, for while thou canst close thine eye, the autumn is approaching, and the fresh feafon is paffing away.

The letter prefixed to the aorist restrains it to the future tense, as


طوطی نامه I will arrive ; thus Nakhebi in his work called

The Tales of a Parrot, Night 35,

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O Nakshebi, a man who defires to enjoy his beloved must be active and diligent: whoever labours diligently in his affairs, will at last attain the object of his wishes.

After having given this analysis of the Perfian verb, it will be neceffary to add a table of the moods and tenses as they answer to those of European languages.



.porsiden to afk پرسیدن ,Verb Active

Indicative Mood, Prefent Tenfe.


.I ak مي پرسم


thou afkeft.

مي پرسي .be aks مي پرسد

.I afked پرسیدم

.thou afkedft پرسيدي .he afked پرسید

Simple Preterite.

Compound Preterite.

thou haft afked.

be bas afked.

.I have afked پرسیده ام .we barve afked پرسیده ایم

.you bave afked پرسیده اید

پرسيده اي پرسیده or پرسیده است پرسید است or

.we afk مي پرسيم .you afk مي پرسيد .they alk مي پرسند

I was asking.


.we alked يرسيديم

.you afked پرسیدید .tbey afked پرسیدند

Preterite Imperfect.

he was afking.

مي پرسيدم

.we were afking می پرسیدیم

.you were afking مي پرسيديد .thou waf_alking مي پرسيدي

مي پرسيد

.they were afking مي پرسيدند


.they barve afked پرسیده اند



I had asked.

.I ball ask بپرسم

پرسیده بودم .we bad asked پرسیده بودیم you پرسیده بودید .thou badi asked پرسیده بودي .be had asked پرسیده بود

.tkey bad asked پرسیده بودند

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First Future.

.I will ask خواهم پرسید خواهیم پرسید .thou wilt ask خواهي پرسيد .you will ask خواهید پرسید .be twill ask خواهد پرسید .they will ask خواهند پرسید

Second Future.


.we ball ask بپرسیم .you ball ask بپرسید .they all ask بپرسند


Conjunctive, or Aorift.

let us ask. ask you.

we will ask.



.let them ask پرسند

bad asked.

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