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“ China, would be sweet indeed if their scent proceeded from sweet-« nefs of temper." "


The participle preterite is formed from the infinitive by changingu into as schwy arrived, schnell sprinkled; from which participle and

, and the passive voice ; as

! I Sprinkled, pilsonil Israll have sprinkled, pchircile I was sprinkled.

پاشیده ,رسیده ,are made feveral compound tenfes شدن and بولن the auxiliary verbs I had پاشیده بولم ,I have prinkled پاشیده ام

/پاشیده ,پاشیده باشم

هم جان بدان لو نرگس جادو سپرله ایم هم دل بدان کو سنبل هندو نهاده ایم

We have given up all our souls to those two inchanting narcissus's

(eyes), we have placed all our hearts on those two black hyacinths (locks of hair).

The Persians are very fond of the participle preterite ; and it is very often used by their elegant writers to connect the members of a fentence, and to suspend the sense till the close of a long period : in poetry it sometimes is used like the third person preterite of a verb, as in this fine couplet :

فروغ جام و قدح نور ماه پوشیده عذار مغبچگان راه آفتاب زده

“ The brightness of the cup and the goblet obscures the light of the

« moon; the cheeks of the young cup-bearers fteal the fplendour of ،، the fun. ”

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In the ode from which this couplet is taken every distich ends with the


.he Jeruck زن for زده word

In composition the infinitive is contracted by rejecting chi I will be ; fo Hafiz,

نفس باد صبا مشک فشان خواهد شد عالم پیر درباره جوان خواهد شد

The breath of the western gale will soon shed mulk around; the old

world will again be young.

, OS it is possible to do; Joves it is necessary to do ; thus Hafiz, the

توان This fhort infinitive is likewife ufed after imperfonal verbs, as ;

, باید ; کرد

Anacreon of Perfia,

بسعي خول نتوان برل كوهر مقصول خیال تست كه این كار بيحواله برآید

“ It is impossible to attain the jewel of thy wishes by thy own endea

vours ; it is a vain imagination to think that it will come to thee “ without assistance.”

and the poet quoted in the history of Cazvini,

روزكارنامه کردار شهاست برانجا كردار نيكو باید كیاشت

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“ The life of man is a journal, in which he must write only good

،، actions.

The imperative is regularly formed by throwing away the termina

-to ar رسیدن arrive thou, from رس from the infinitive, as بدن tion بكو fear tlcu; fo Ferdudi in his noble fatire against a king who had بترس

rive: the letter , is often prefixed to the imperative, as $ say thou ;

Nighted him;

ایا شاه محمود کشورکشاي زمن نرنترسي بترس از خداي خيزيدي چرا خاطر تیز من نترسیدي از تیغ خون ربنزمن

O king Mahmud, thou conqueror of regions, if thou fearest not me, at

least fear God! why hast thou inflamed my wrathful temper? dost thou not dread my blood-dropping sword?


It must be here observed, that the negatives aj and ; are changed in the imperative into do and


do not ask;



درد عشقي کشیده ام که
زهر هجري چشیده ام

که مپرس

" I have felt the pain of love; ask not of whom: I have tasted the

“ poison of absence; ask not from whom.”



Before verbs beginning with | elif the letters ; n and , are changed into and

, , not bring;

مي دني

do میار ,bring thou بیار are ufed آر as before دبي


ساقیا ساغر شراب بیار کدو ساغر شراب ناب بیار

Boy, bring a cup of wine ; bring a few more cups of

pure wine.”

کو شمع میارید در این جمع كه امشب در مجلس ما ماه رخ دوست تمامست در مجلس ما عطر میامیز كه جانرا هردم زسر زلف تو خوش بوي مشاهست

“ Say, bring no tapers into our afsembly, for this night the moon of my

“ beloved's cheek is at its full in our banquet ; Sprinkle no perfume “ in our apartment, for to our minds the fragrance that constantly “. proceeds from thy locks is sufficiently pleasing.”


انگیز fame with the imperative, as عشرت انگیز ,excite thou انگیز -كيتي ,افروز

The contracted participle used in compound epithets is exactly the ,

mirthexciting ; jgöl inflame thou, jy ilçüs world-inflaming, Getiafrose, the name of a fairy in the Persian tales translated by Colonel Dow. The participles of the present tense are formed by adding wl, I or

, , , , ; participle is often used for a noun of action, as odljea player.

arriving; which late رسنده and رسا ,رسان to the imperative, as نده


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From the imperative also is formed the conjunctive tense or aorist by

/ آیم ,conse thoud أي adding to it the uful perfonal termination, as from


may or will come.

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“ When the sun of the wine shall rise from the east of the cup, a thou

،، fand tulips will fpring from the garden of the cup-bearer's cheek."

By this affected, yet lively allegory, the poet only means that “ the cup“ bearer will blush when he shall present the wine to the guests.”

For the most part this form of the Persian verb, which the grammarians properly call the aorist, or indefinite tense, answers to the potential mood of other languages, and is governed by conjunctions as in Latin and Englith : this will be seen more clearly in the following example taken from the life of Nader Shah ;


دانایان روزاكاشي و دتیقه یابان حكتهاي الهي واضح است که در هر عهد و اوان که اوضاع جهان مختلف و پریشان و چرخ ستيكر بكام ستنیشان كردن خداوند یکانه که مدبر این کارخانه و مقلب اوضاع زمانه است از فيض بي منتهاي خول سعادتيندرا موید و در عرصه كيتي مبسوط اليد كند كه براهم مراحم و رافت بالتيام جراحات قلوب ستمدیدگان پردازد و مذاق تهناي تلخكامان زهر حوادث را بشهد عدالت شیرین دازل

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