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I went, and bruised their helmets ; I disfigured their beautiful faces.


od, as اوي or و or وي is often changed into او After a prepofition شاہ جہاندار بنهول روي

چون زمین را ببوسید و شد پیش اوي

When the king of the world showed his face, the general kissed the

ground, and advanced before him. Ferdufi.

Sometimes after the preposition win, the letter J is inserted to prevent the hiatus, as guy bedo for g4 beö in it; the same may be observ


* .in this باين bedeen for بدين ,bean in that بان bedan for بدان ed of

* In the same manner and from the same motive the old Romans added a d to many words followed by a vowel; thus Horace, if we adopt the reading of Muretus, uses tibid for tibi. Omne crede diem tibid illuxiffe fupremum.

The The possessives are the same with the personals, and are distinguished by being added to their substantives

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They are often expressed in the fingular number by these final letters

P em, wet, and vi esh, and after an 1 or by plam, wl at, and cül afh: but after nouns ending in 1 elif or , vau the letter Sya is inserted before the finals


as ز ش ت م


.dilet thy heart دلت

pla dilem



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In poetry, and sometimes in prose, the oblique cases of the personal pronouns are also expressed by pw and jü, as

خوشا شیراز و وضع بي مثالش خداوندا نگهدار از زوالش

Joy be to Shiraz and it charming borders ! O heaven, preserve it from


These oblique cases are joined to any word in the sentence which the poet finds convenient; thus in the couplet just quoted the pronoun cü it is added to Jlgj; so in the following distich, w the dative of gui thou, is placed after the conjunction Šgher if.


سجاده رنگين كن كرت پیر مغان شويد که سالک بیخبر نبول زراه و رسم منزلها

Tinge the sacred carpet with wine, if the master of the feast orders

thee; for he that travels is not ignorant of the ways and manners of banquet-houses.

Our reciprocal pronouns own and self are expressed in Persian by the following words, which are applicable to all persons and sexes ; aš

خودش or خول .Nom خویش or خویشتن خوي or

خودرا ,Oblique خویشتن را


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Das is also joined like the Latin ipfe to every person of a verb, as

Sing. .



.iple peni خود آمدم ipfe benifi خود آمدي

.iple scenit خول آمد

.ip cenimus خود آمدیم .ip venijlis خود آمدید آمدند :ipf enerunt خول

The word wys seems to be redundant in the following beautiful lines of Sadi,

داني چه گفت مرا آن بلبل سحري تو خود چه آدمي کز عشق بیخبري


Dost thou know what the early nightingale said to me? “ What fort

“ of man art thou, that canst be ignorant of love ?”


* I here use his self and their felves instead of the corrupted words bimself and themselves; in which usage I am justified by the authority of Sidney, and of other writers in the reign of Elizabeth : self seems to have been originally a noun, and was, perhaps, a synonymous word for foul; according to Locke's definition of it, Self is that conscious thinking thing, which is sensible or conscious of pleasure and “ pain, capable of happiness and misery:" if this observation be just, the Arabs have exactly the same

selfas a boy threw his self into a river,”

نفسه في نهرJoul, anfwere precitely to our Je, a نغس idiom, for their

صبي (مي



is خول when

is used as a pronoun" poffeffivè, it answers to the Greek o Pérepos, and signifies my, thy, our, your, his or her, and their, according to the person and number of the principal verb in the sentence; as in this couplet of Hafiz,

محرم راز دل شیداي خول كس نمي بينم زخاص و عام را

I see no man, either among the nobles 'or the populace, to whom I

can trust the secret of my afflicted heart.

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-een is prefixed to a noun, fo as to form one word, it is fre این When , -امشب

quently changed into plim, as Vuirol imsheb to-night ;


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