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Sing. to thou

.to Thou تو

.huma you or ye شما .Plur

Sing.o he, she, or it.

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.He ه او

.ifhan tbey ایشان .Plur


tura ترا

.humara you شمارا

tura thee.

Obl. l óra him, her, or it.

as,ایشان for شان The poets often ufe

.ifhanra them ایشانرا

Sometimes after the prepofition vent the hiatus, as bedo for

همیرفتم و كوفتم مغز شان

تهي كردم از پیکر نغز شان

I went, and bruifed their helmets; I disfigured their beautiful faces.

After a prepofition is often changed into Sor or oë, as

چون شاه جهاندار بنهود روي زمینرا ببوسید و شد پیش اوي

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When the king of the world fhowed his face, the general kiffed the ground, and advanced before him.


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in, the letter is inferted to prebeö in it; the fame may be observ

* .in this بین bedeen for بدین,ban in that بان bedan for بدان ed of

*In the fame manner and from the fame motive the old Romans added a d to many words followed by a vowel; thus Horace, if we adopt the reading of Muretus, uses tibid for tibi.

Omne crede diem tibid illuxiffe fupremum.

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The poffeffives are the fame with the perfonals, and are distinguished

by being added to their substantives; as

Sing. dili men my heart.
Jo dili to thy heart.

.dili o his or her beart دل او or وي

.dilhai ma our bearts دلهاي ما .Plur

.dilhai huma your bearts دلهاي شما

تان .Poet

.dilhai ifhan their hearts دلهاي ايشان شان .Poet

They are often expreffed in the fingular number by these final letters
em, ☺et, and esh, and after an I or by pl am, l at, and il
ash: but after nouns ending in I elif or " vau the letter ◆ ya is inserted

before the finals

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In poetry, and sometimes in profe, the oblique cafes of the perfonal pronouns are also expreffed by and, as

خوشا شیراز و وضع بی مثالش خداوندا نکه دار از زوالش

Joy be to Shiraz and it charming borders! O heaven, preferve it from decay.

Thefe oblique cafes are joined to any word in the fentence which the poet finds convenient; thus in the couplet juft quoted the pronoun

it is added to Jj; fo in the following diftich,

the dative of

thou, is placed after the conjunction

gher if.

سجاده رنگين كن كرت پیر مغان گوید که سالک بیخبر نبود زراه و رسم منزلها


Tinge the facred carpet with wine, if the mafter of the feast orders thee; for he that travels is not ignorant of the ways and manners of banquet-houfes.

Our reciprocal pronouns own and felf are expreffed in Perfian by the following words, which are applicable to all perfons and fexes; as

خودش or خود .Nom خویش or خویشتن

خوي or

خود را ,Oblique خویشتن را


thus we may use

.myfelf من خود

.tbyfelf تو خود

.bis or berself او خود

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is also joined like the Latin ipfe to every person of a verb, as

.ipfe veni خود آمدم

ipfe venili خود آمدي .ipfe venit خود آمد

.ourselves ما خود

.your felves شما خود

*.themfelves ایشان خود

The word feems to be redundant in the following beautiful lines of Sadi,


.ipf venimus خود آمدیم .ipfi venilis خود آمدید .ipfi venerunt خود آمدند

داني چه گفت مرا ان بلبل سحري تو خود چه آدمي کز عشق بيخبري

foul, answers precifely to our felf, as نفس idiom, for their

Doft thou know what the early nightingale said to me?" What fort

“ of man art thou, that canft be ignorant of love ?''

I here ufe bis felf and their felves inftead of the corrupted words bimfelf and themselves; in which ufage I am justified by the authority of Sidney, and of other writers in the reign of Elizabeth: Self feems to have been originally a noun, and was, perhaps, a fynonymous word for foul; according to Locke's definition of it," Self is that conscious thinking thing, which is fenfible or conscious of pleasure and

pain, capable of happiness and mifery:" if this observation be juft, the Arabs have exactly the fame


a boy threw his felf into a river."

نفسه في نهر

صبي رمي



When is ufed as a pronoun poffeffivè, it anfwers to the Greek opérepos, and fignifies my, tby, our, your, his or ber, and their, according to the person and number of the principal verb in the sentence; as in this couplet of Hafiz,

محرم راز دل شيداي خود كس نمي بينم زخاص و عام را

I fee no man, either among the nobles or the populace, to whom I can trust the secret of my afflicted heart.

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When een is prefixed to a noun, so as to form one word, it is frequently changed into lim, as

imfheb to-night ;


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