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break our vows of repentance in the midst of the roses. O Hafiz, thou desirest, like the nightingales, the presence of the rose: let thy very soul be a ransom for the earth where the keeper of the rose-garden walks !

I shall in this manner quote a few Persian couplets, as examples of the principal rules in this grammar: such quotations will give some variety to a subject naturally barren and unpleasant; will serve as a specimen of the oriental style ; and will be more easily retained in the memory than rules delivered in mere prose.


Our article a is supplied in Persian by adding the letter s to a noun, which restrains it to the fingular number ; as fingle rose;

guli a كلي

تا چینم كلي رفتم بباغ صبعده آمد بكوش ناكهم آواز بلبلي

One morning I went into the garden to gather a rose, when on a sudden

the voice of a nightingale struck my ear.

Without this termination US gul would fignify roses or flowers collectively, as

می خواه و شكل نشان كن

Call for wine, and scatter flowers around.



When a noun ends in o the idea of unity is expressed by the mark Hamza, as aamia cheshmeï a single fountain.

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OF NUMBERS. . From the two examples in a preceding section it appears that the Persian plural is formed by adding wl or lo to the fingular: but these terminations are not, as in many languages, wholly arbitrary; on the contrary they are regulated with the utmost precision. The names of animals form their plural in ol, as

oby US $ gurk a wolf. oss gurkan wolves.

.pelenk a tyger پلنك

.pelenkan tygers پلنکان

but words which signify things without life make their plurals by the addition of the syllable , as


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.fahilha Jhores بساحلها

Both these plurals occur in the following elegant distich.

شب تاریک و بیم موج ورد ابي چنین هایل من کجا دانند حال ما سبکباران ساحلها

The night is dark; the fear of the waves oppress us, and the whirlpool

is dreadful! How should those, who bear light burdens on the fhores, know the misery of our situation?




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ان s ان pechegan infants; and fometimes by adding پچنان ,an infant

فرشته نان ,ferihte an angel فرشته ,a feparate fyllable ; thus

There are, however, a few exceptions to these rules: the names of animals sometimes make their plurals in Los as well as in wl, as shütür a camel, Log jäi Mütürha and oljüü Mütüran camels ; and on the other side the names of things sometiines have plurals in wl, as WJ leb a lip, W leban lips.

Names of persons ending in 1 or y form their plurals in ou, as Lila dana a learned man, wbuild danayan learned men; and those that end in o are made plural by changing the last letter into LS, as dan peché , ;

; , , ; ferishte gan angels.

If the name of a thing ends in s, the final letter is absorbed in the plural before the syllable , as dili khané a house, khanha houses.

In some modern Persian books, as the Life of Nader Shah and others, the plural often ends in wl or in wlə if the fingular has a final g.



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But these must be considered as barbarous, and are a proof that the late
dreadful commotions which have ruined the empire of the Persians,
have begun to destroy even the beautiful simplicity of their language.

It must not be omitted, that the Arabick substantives frequently have.
two sorts of plurals, one formed according to the analogy of the Persian
nouns, and another after the irregular manner of the Arabians ; as cus


,kalah a cafile قلعه ;avaib oices عوایب aibha and عيبها ,aib a vice تلعها


نواب .nayib a viceroy, plur نایب ;kalaa calles قلاع kalaha and قلعها

naváb, which our countrymen have mistaken for the fingular number, and say very improperly a nabob. This is one argument out of a great number to prove the impossibility of learning the Persian language accurately without a moderate knowledge of the Arabick; and if the learner will follow my advice, he will peruse with attention the Arabick grammar of Erpenius * before he attempts to translate a. Persian manuscript.

OF ADJECTIVES. The Persian adjectives admit of no variation, but in the degrees of comparison. The positive is made comparative by adding to it, and

ترین fuperlative by adding

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Our than after a comparative is expressed by the preposition jl az, as

بیاض روي تو روشنتر از رخ روز سوال زلف تو تاریکتر از ظلمت کاج

The brightness of thy face is more splendid than the cheek of day; the

blackness of thy locks is darker than the hue of night.

There are two fine editions of this grammar, the first published by the very learned Golius, and the second by the late Albert Schultens ; both these Orientalists have added a number of Arabick odes and elegies, which they have explained in excellent notes : but these editions are scarce, and Meninski has inserted in his grammar the substance of Erpenius, with many new remarks. VOL. II.


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The moon is bright, but thy face is brighter than it; the cypress is

graceful, but thy shape is more graceful than the cypress.

An adjective is sometimes used substantively, and forms its plural like

,hhakiman the toile ; if it be a compounded adjective حكیمان a noun, as



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the syllables ol and ly denoting the plural number and the oblique case, are placed at the end of it, as Johorlo sahibdil an honest man; oblique

صاحبدلانرا fahibdilan, oblique صاحبدلان fahibdilra; plural صاحبدلرا

sahibdilanra ; as

فرو مانند پري رويان زآن عارض خجل كشتند سمن بویان زان كاكل

The damsels with faces like angels are dejected at the sight of that

cheek; the nymphs with the fragrance of jeffamine are filled with envy when they view those curls.

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