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wo differs little from

as jucho Saddar the name of a Persian book; and b has nearly the same found with was

Jbs otr essence ; a word often used in English, since our connection with India, to denote the precious perfume called otter of roses. The word is Arabick, as the letters

E and b sufficiently prove. V and Li differ very little from j; but they are pronounced more forcibly, and may be expressed by zz, as

-Khezzar the name of a pro خضر : Nezzaimi the name of a poet نظامي

phet in the eastern romances.


These two letters are extremely harsh in the pronunciation of the
Arabs. The sound of ę, says Meninski, eft vox vituli matrem vocantis ;
but in Persian it is a sort of vowel, and answers generally to our broad

Arab the Arabians; cus áin a fountain. Sometimes it has a sound like our o, as in the word before-mentioned, los otr perfume. As to È it is commonly pronounced in Persia like our hard gh in the

word ghost, as

polis gholám a boy, a servant.

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عرب a, as


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is another harsh Arabick letter, but in Persian it is often confounded with us, which has the found of our k, as who Kermán the province of Carmania ; Jilä Kaf a fabulous mountain in the Oriental tales.

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When • has three points above it, the Persians give it the sound of g in the word gay, as limt gulistán a bed of roses ; but these points are very seldom written in the Persian manuscripts ; so that the distinction between us k and 35 g can be learned only by use: thus they often write WU rose-water, and pronounce it gulab.

ن م ل

See the remark on y These letters are the liquids l, m, n, r.

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z is a slight aspiration, and is often redundant, as jy behár the spring, which is pronounced almost like beár; wl Herat a city in the province of Corasan, which the Greeks call Aria : , therefore is the h of the French in honnête, whence came our honest without an aspiration. At the end of a word it frequently sounds like a vowel, as a ke, which has the same sense and pronunciation as the Italian che which.


ي نیر ,ora to him اورا ,khan a lord خان the words call, Jole, feed; as

OF VOWELS. . The long vowels are !, and may be pronounced as a, 0, ce, in

, , neez also ; but the short vowels are expressed by small marks, two of which are placed above the letter, and one below it, as į as ba or be, y be or bi, ✔ bo or bu; thus,

ب ,,

,; ب , آر آن ترک شیرازی بدست آرد دل مارا بخال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخار آرا


Egher ân turki Shirazi bedeit âred dili mára
Bekháli hinduish bakshem Samarcand u Bokhárára.

سمرقندي with it, as


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The marku placed above a consonant shows that the syllable ends

Sa-mar-can-di a native of Samarcand; the first of which syllables is short, the second and third long by position, and the last long by nature : but this belongs to the prosody. These Tort vowels are very seldom written in the Persian books; and the other orthographical marks are likewise usually suppressed except Medda“, Hamza ?, and Teshdid"; the two first of which are most common. Medda above an I gives it a very broad sound, as

aun: Hamza supplies the place of in words that end in it therefore sometimes represents the article, as doli nameï a book, or denotes the former of two substantives, as olivo dili náfeï mushk a bag of musk; or, lastly, it marks the second person singular in the compound preterite of a verb, as gulo dádéi, which would regularly be slowly dádeh i thou bast given. Teshdid shews a consonant to be doubled, as ob turreh a lock


a of hair.

The omission of the short vowels will at first perplex the student; fince many

words that are compounded of the same consonants, have different senses according to the difference of the vowels omitted: but until he has learned the exact pronunciation of every word from a native, he may give every short vowel a kind of obscure sound very common in English, as in the words sun, bird, mother, which a Mahometan would write without any vowel, sn, brd, mthr; thus the Persian word hy bd may be pronounced like our bud.

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Vau , and Ya $ are often used as consonants, like our v and y; thus, wly Van a town in Armenia ; uloz juvan juvenis, giovane, young; or...

خدایار ;Yemen, that province of Arabia which we call the happy

Khodayár, a proper name fignifying the friend of God.

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.khan a table خوان often lofes its found, as

I would not advise the learner to study the parts of speech until he can read the Persian characters with tolerable fluency; which he will soon be able to do, if he will spend a few hours in writing a page or two of Persian in English letters, and restoring them after a short interval to their proper characters by the help of the alphabet. I shall close this section with a piece of Persian poetry written both in the Asiatick and European characters: it is an ode by the poet Hafiz, the first couplet of which has been already quoted; and a translation of it shall be inserted in its proper place.

بده ساقي مي باقي که در جنت نخواهي يافت کنار آب رکنابان ولشت مصدرا

Bedeh fakee mei bákée ke der jennet nekháhi yaft,
Kunári âbi rucnabád va gulghshéti musellára.

فغان کین لولیان شوخ شیریار شهر آشوب چنان بردند صبر از دل که ترکان خوان ينهارا

Fugán kein lulián shokhi shiringári shehrâfhob
Chunan berdendi fabr az dil ke turkan khani yagmára.

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ز عشق نانام ما جهال يار مستغنيست باب و رنك وخال و خط چه حاجت روي زيبارا

Ze eshki nátemámi má jemáli yári mustagnist
Beâb u reng u khál u khatt che hájet ruyi zibára.

حدیث از مطرب و مي شوو راز دهر کتر جو که کس نکشود و نكشاید بجکت این معمارا

‘Hadís az mutreb u mei gú va rázi dehri kemter jú
Ke kes nekshud u nekshaied behikmet ein moammára.

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من از آن حسن روزافزون که یوسف داشت دانستم که عشق از پرده عصمت برون آرد زليخارا

Men az ân husni ruzafzún ke yusuf dashti danestem
Ke eshk ez perdéï ismet berún ared zuleikhára.

نصیحت نوش کن جانا که از جان دوستتر دارند جوانان سعادتهنن پند پیر کانارا

Nasihet góshi kun iána ke az jân dostiter darend
Juvánáni faádetmendi pendi péeri danára

بدم گفتي و خرسندم عنا الله نکو کفتی جواب تلخ میزیبد لب لعل شکرخوارا


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