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THE learner is supposed to be acquainted with the common terms of grammar, and to know that the Persians write their characters from the right hand to the left.

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IV. III.

FINALS.
Connected. Unconnected.

II.

I. INITIALS and MediALS.

Connected. Unconnected.

Chim.
Hha.

Kha.

Dal. Zal.

1: dd 9.777

Ra.
Za.
Zha.
Sin.
Shin.
Sfad.
Zzad.

Ta.
Zza.
Ain.
Gain.

Fa.
Kaf.
Caf.
Gaf.
Lam.
Mim.
Nun.
Vau.
Ha.
Ya.

Lam-alif

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The second and fourth columns of these letters from the right hand are used only when they are connected with a preceding letter ; as cho Mohammed. Every letter should be connected with that which follows it, except these seven ; 1 alif, s dal, o zal, y ra, j za, j zha, and , vau, which are never joined to the following letter, as will appear from the words US berk a leaf, şuglo daveri a dominion.

Though the perfect pronounciation of these letters can be learned only from the mouth of a Persian or an Indian, yet it will be proper to

a add a few observations upon the most remarkable of them.

,

a

a

OF CONSONANTS.

It will be needless to say much of the three first consonants VWW since their sound is exactly the same as our b, p, and t, in the words bar, peer, and too, which would be written in Persian ju

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This letter, which the Arabs pronounce like a th, has in Persian the same found with a ww or s, as wu Abu Leis, a proper name.

It !! Ꭴ might, therefore, have been rejected from the Persian alphabet without any inconvenience; but it is useful in showing the origin of words, as it is seldom, or never, used in any that are not Arabick. The same may be observed of the following letters, a co weblo E Ė which rarely occur in words originally Persian,

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The first of these letters answers to our soft g in gem, which a Persian would write or to our j in jar y: the second of them founds exactly like our ch in the words cherry, cheek; as Circasia.

چم

Chirkes چرکس

T T

is a very strong aspirate, and may be expressed in our characters by a double h, as Je hhál a condition.

خ

a

خ

is formed in the throat, and has a sound like the German ch; but the Persians pronounce it less harshly than the Arabs, and give it the found of c before a, o, or u in the Tuscan dialect, as u chan a lord, which a Florentine would pronounce like can: This is the word so variously and so erroneously written by the Europeans. The sovereign lord of Tartary is neither the cham, as our travellers call him, nor the ban, as Voltaire will have it, but the ul khán, or cán, with an afpirate on the first letter.

ل

J answers exactly to our d in deer J.

j

This letter, which the Arabs pronounce dh, has in Persian the sound of ; %, and is often confounded with it; thus they write www and

رة

نیشتن

van Š guzelhten to pass: It is feldom used but in Arabick words ; though it sometimes occurs in words purely Persian, as olajul Azarbịján the province of Media, so called from yol azar, an old word for fire, because the adorers of fire, if we believe the Asiatick historians, first built their temples in that province.

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and the three liquids Jou are pronounced exactly like our r, m, n; as l arám rest, ad y láleh a tulip, ylo már a serpent, u li nán bread. But

. before a has the found of m, as chir kumbed a tower, mis amber ambergris.

j j has the sound of our %, as uljaY lalehzár a bed of tulips.

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عنبر

ژ

This letter has the found of our s'in the words pleasure, treasure ; and corresponds precisely with the soft g of the French in gens, or their j in

8 jour. It may be expressed in our characters by zh, as allj zháleh dew; for it has the same relation to z which has to s.

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and

cui are our s and f, as plü pulu Selim sháh king Selim.

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These four letters are pronounced by the Arabs in a manner peculiar to themselves; but in Persian they are confounded with other letters.

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